MyCiteULike: My library 16 articles

Destination Image of Bali Indonesia in the Perspective of Senior Foreign Tourists

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (31 March 2015)
posted to bali image of by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2015Destination on 2015-08-01 00:50:30 **/
Abstract Copy

Experience Marketing at Eka Karya Botanical Garden Bali

[Quick Edit] [CiTO]

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (10 July 2015)
posted to experience marketing by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2015Experience on 2015-08-01 00:45:09 **/
Abstract Copy

Leisure and Tourism on Quality of Life

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (13 July 2015)
posted to leisure tourism by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2015Leisure on 2015-08-01 00:44:23 **/
Abstract Copy

Lifestyle and Social Class is Reflected in Consumer Behaviour for Services Industries

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (21 July 2015)
posted to class lifestyle social by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2015Lifestyle on 2015-08-01 00:43:21 **/
Abstract Copy

Landscape and Leisure Outdoor Recreation in Gieten-Drenthe, Netherlands

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (17 July 2015)
posted to and landscape leisure outdoor recreation by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2015Landscape on 2015-08-01 00:42:19 **/
Abstract Copy

Travelling Motivation and Satisfaction Visiting Bali Indonesia in the Perspective of Senior Tourist

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (17 July 2015)
posted to market senior tourist by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2015Travelling on 2015-08-01 00:40:51 **/
Abstract Copy

Penerapan the Service Profit Chain Pada Industri Perhotelan (The Application of the Service Profit Chain in the Hotel Industry)

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (25 July 2015)
posted to chain profit service by raiutamaigb keyed EkaPurnamaDewi2015Penerapan on 2015-08-01 00:40:03 **/
Abstract Copy

Botanical Garden as a Recreational Park: Balancing Economic Interest with Conservation

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (18 April 2015)
posted to destination landscape recreation tourism by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2015Botanical on 2015-06-05 13:05:28 **/
Abstract Copy

Destination Image of Bali Indonesia in the Perspective of Senior Foreign Tourists

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (31 March 2015)
posted to destination marketing senior by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2015Destination on 2015-06-05 13:04:47 **/
Abstract Copy

Landscape as an Outdoor Recreation Form (Case Study the Netherlands and Bali, Indonesia )

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (22 January 2015)
posted to landscape recreation tourism by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2015Landscape on 2015-06-05 13:03:50 **/
Abstract Copy

Positioning of Eco Tourism Objects in Bali Indonesia

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (18 April 2015)
posted to forestry tourism by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2015Positioning on 2015-06-05 13:02:56 **/
Abstract Copy

The Contradiction of Managing Tourism Objects Based on Culture and Its Heritage

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (2 November 2014)
posted to forestry tourism by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2014Contradiction on 2015-06-05 13:02:10 **/
Abstract Copy

Destination Loyalty Model of Elderly Foreign Tourists Visiting Bali Tourism Destination

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (29 November 2014)
posted to no-tag by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2014Destination on 2015-06-05 13:01:16 **/
Abstract Copy

Agrotourism as an Alternative Form of Tourism in Bali Indonesia

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (2 November 2014)
posted to agrotourism by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2014Agrotourism on 2015-06-05 13:00:31 **/
Abstract Copy

Confirmation on the Motivation and Satisfaction Model of Foreign Senior Tourists

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series, No. 8. (7 November 2014)
posted to destination marketing senior tourism by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2014Confirmation on 2015-06-05 12:55:34 **/
Attachments Abstract Copy

Increasing the Interest of Forestry Education Through Collaboration with Tourism

Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series (6 June 2015)
posted to forestry tourism by raiutamaigb keyed Utama2015Increasing on 2015-06-05 12:47:51 **/
Abstract Copy
Note: You may cite this page as: http://www.citeulike.org/user/raiutamaigb

SEGERA TERBIT: AGROWISATA SEBAGAI PARIWISATA ALTERNATIF INDONESIA

Cover__Agrowisata-1

SEGERA TERBIT: AGROWISATA SEBAGAI PARIWISATA ALTERNATIF INDONESIA

(Tersedia hanya 36 buah, yang berminat? silahkan pesan lebih awal via sms Bp. Rai 081337868577)

Kata Pengantar Penerbit

Assalamu’alaikum, Wr. Wb

Indonesia merupakan negara yang sangat kaya akan sumber daya alam yang mendukung majunya pariwisata yang ada, terutama agriwisata. Berbagai upaya dilakukan untuk menciptakan pembangunan pariwisata yang berkelanjutan.
Pembangunan pariwisata ini menjadikan satu entitas yang diupayakan dapat untuk meningkatkan taraf hidup masyarakat sekitar dan terus eksis dalam terjaganya kondisi lingkungan di sekitar. Pembangunan pariwisata yang berkelanjutan melibatkan hubungan yang harmonis antara wisatawan, pengelola daerah wisata, penduduk lokal, juga dengan para pembuat kebijakan maupun pemangku kepentingan untuk terus mempertahankan kondisi lingkungan dan dapat adil dalam melaksanakan peran lingkungan tersebut, baik sebagai penyangga keseimbangan alam maupun sebagai fasilitator untuk menunjang ekonomi masyarakat lokal, salah satunya melalui agrowisata.

Buku ini merupakan hasil karya dari salah satu cendekiawan yang sangat concern pada kemajuan masyarakat dengan meningkatkan fungsi agrowisata yang sangat potensial di Indonesia. Dengan tulisannya ini, semoga kita dapat memaksimalkan pengembangan agrowisata yang dapat menunjang ekonomi masyarakat, dan diharapkan dapat memutus mata rantai kemiskinan melalui keterlibatan mereka sebagai penyedia jasa penunjang dari agenda para wisatawan yang berkunjung.

Akhirnya, selain syukur ke hadirat Allah Swt, penerbit juga berharap buku ini dapat memberi manfaat bagi pembaca dan memotivasi penulis untuk terus berkarya menuangkan ideidenya dalam bentuk buku. Selain itu, kami berharap semoga
buku ini dapat mendorong masyarakat untuk selalu antusias dalam menambah wawasan, meningkatkan kekritisan dalam berpikir, dan mengembangkan ilmu pengetahuan.

Wassalamu’alaikum, Wr. Wb

Hormat Kami,
Penerbit Deepublish

Leisure, Tourism, Recreation: SSRN eLibrary Database Search Results Scholarship Articles

1 Incl. Electronic Paper Agrotourism as an Alternative Form of Tourism in Bali Indonesia
The International Conference on Sustainable Development March 6, 2012, Inna Bali Beach Hotel Sanur Bali Indonesia
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama
Universitas Dhyana Pura
Number of Pages in PDF File: 21
2 Incl. Electronic Paper Botanical Garden as a Recreational Park: Balancing Economic Interest with Conservation
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 4, April- 2015, I SSN 2229-5518
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama
Universitas Dhyana Pura
Number of Pages in PDF File: 5
3 Incl. Electronic Paper Confirmation on the Motivation and Satisfaction Model of Foreign Senior Tourists
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 5, Issue 8,August-2014 1206 ISSN 2229-5518
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama , I. Nyoman Darma Putra and I Made Suradnya
Universitas DhyanaPura ,Udayana University and Bali Tourism InstituteNumber of Pages in PDF File: 10
4 Incl. Electronic Paper Destination Image of Bali Indonesia in the Perspective of Senior Foreign Tourists
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama and Komalawati
Universitas Dhyana Pura and Universitas Dhyana Pura
Number of Pages in PDF File: 11
5 Incl. Electronic Paper Destination Loyalty Model of Elderly Foreign Tourists Visiting Bali Tourism Destination
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama
Universitas Dhyana Pura
Number of Pages in PDF File: 16
6 Incl. Electronic Paper Experience Marketing at Eka Karya Botanical Garden Bali
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama
Universitas Dhyana Pura
Number of Pages in PDF File: 5
7 Incl. Electronic Paper Increasing the Interest of Forestry Education Through Collaboration with Tourism
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama
Universitas Dhyana Pura
Number of Pages in PDF File: 9
8 Incl. Electronic Paper Landscape and Leisure Outdoor Recreation in Gieten-Drenthe, Netherlands
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama
Universitas Dhyana Pura
Number of Pages in PDF File: 20
9 Incl. Electronic Paper Landscape as an Outdoor Recreation Form (Case Study the Netherlands and Bali, Indonesia )
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama
Universitas Dhyana Pura
Number of Pages in PDF File: 21
10 Incl. Electronic Paper Leisure and Tourism on Quality of Life
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama
Universitas Dhyana Pura
Number of Pages in PDF File: 12
11 Incl. Electronic Paper Positioning of Eco Tourism Objects in Bali Indonesia
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama
Universitas Dhyana Pura
Number of Pages in PDF File: 10
12 Incl. Electronic Paper The Contradiction of Managing Tourism Objects Based on Culture and Its Heritage
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama and Ni Made Eka Mahadewi
Universitas Dhyana Pura and Udayana University
Number of Pages in PDF File: 6
13 Incl. Electronic Paper Travelling Motivation and Satisfaction Visiting Bali Indonesia in the Perspective of Senior Tourist
I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama and Komalawati
Universitas Dhyana Pura and Universitas Dhyana Pura
Number of Pages in PDF File: 33

 

Are you searching for publications (High Quality and Free)

 

 

Dosen Undhira dipercaya Sebagai Keynote Speaker International Workshop

UPM WorkshopDr. I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama, SE., MMA., MA, Dosen Undhira, yang merupakan salah seorang doktor pariwisata, dipercaya sebagai keynote speaker pada International Workshop yang diselenggarakan oleh Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas terbaik di Malaysia yakni Universiti Putra Malaysia pada tanggal 25 – 26 Mei 2015. Materi yang disampaikan pada workshop tersebut adalah tentang Forest Recreation and Tourism Education di Indonesia khususnya berhubungan dengan Ecotourism. Keynote spaker yang lainnya adalah Prof. Dr. Juan Pulhin dari Philipina untuk materi Forest Management, dan Prof. Dr. Songlod Jarusombuti dari Thailand untuk membawakan materi Wood Science and Technology.

Ada fenomena menarik yang terjadi pada negara-negara di ASEAN, bahwa minat generasi muda untuk melanjutkan studinya pada fakultas kehutanan semakin menurun dari tahun ke tahun. Pada diskusi yang melibatkan ratusan mahasiswa fakultas kehutanan tersebut, terkuak bahwa program studi atau fakultas kehutanan dianggap kurang dapat memberikan peluang kerja yang menarik minat generasi muda.

Rai Utama pada materi yang disajikannya, menjelaskan bahwa untuk meningkatkan minat generasi muda untuk melanjutkan studi di fakultas kehutanan, diperlukan inovasi dan kreatifitas untuk senantiasa mengetahui kebutuhan pasar kerja saat ini dan mendatang. Kolaborasi dengan sektor lain seperti pariwisata adalah salah satu jawabannya. Ecotourism adalah bentuk kolaborasi antara sektor kehutanan dengan pariwisata. Begitu juga Agrotourism adalah kolabrorasi antara pertanian dengan Pariwisata. Menurutnya, Sektor pariwisata adalah sektor yang paling seksi untuk dikolaborasikan dengan sektor manapun.

Undangan menjadi keynote speaker pada event international tersebut merupakan salah satu jawaban atas pergumulan Universitas Dhyana Pura yang kini telah memilih 13 program studi yang terakterditasi yakni S1 Manajemen, S1, Sastra Inggris, S1 Psikologi, S1 PG Paud, S1 PG PKK, D3. Pemasaran, S1, Perekam Medis dan Informasi Kesehatan, S1 Fisioterapi, S1 Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, S1 Ilmu Gizi, S1 Biologi, S1 Sistem Informasi, S1 Tehnik Informatika dan Pusat Pendidikan dan Latihan Pariwisata (PPLP) dengan program pelatihan 1 tahun, 2 tahun dan 3 tahun, dalam mengimplementasikan karakater ke-7 dari 7 Karakter Undhira yang senantiasa ditanamkan bagi seluruh civitas akademika yakni Global Outlook yang mengarahkan mahasiswa dan para dosennya dapat berkontribusi pada dunia international. Untuk mencapai visi menjadi Universitas Teladan dan Unggulan, Undhira senantiasa berinovasi dan memberikan kesempatan bagi para dosen dan juga mahasiswa untuk berkreatifitas sesuai dengan bidang ilmunya masing-masing.

Sumber: http://undhirabali.ac.id/dosen-undhira-dipercaya-sebagai-keynote-speaker-international-workshop/#more-803

I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama (ORCID:0000-0002-1962-0707)

I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama (ORCID:0000-0002-1962-0707)
Vice Rector of Universitas Dhyana Pura, Bali, Indonesia
Agrowisata Sebagai Pariwisata Alternatif

IGBRAI UTAMA
KARYA ILMIAH MAHASISWA
2 2011

Perception and Factors Influencing Tourists Visiting Eka Karya Botanical Garden Bali

I Utama Rai, G Bagus
Thesis, Udayana University, Bali
2 2005

Pengaruh Sektor Pariwisata terhadap Kinerja Keuangan Daerah dan Kesejahteraan Masyarakat Kabupaten/Kota di Provinsi Bali

NK Widiastuti
E-Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Universitas Udayana 2 (05)
1 2013

EXTENDED MARKETING MIX SEBAGAI STRATEGI MEMENANGKAN CERUK PASAR WISATAWAN SENIOR BAGI DESTINASI PARIWISATA BALI

IGBR Utama
1 2008

Agrotourism as an alternative form of tourism in Bali

IGBR Utama, STIMD Pura
Paper for the Global Development
1 2007

Increasing the Interest of Forestry Education Through Collaboration with Tourism

IGBR Utama
Humanities 619, 118,037
  2015

Positioning of Eco Tourism Objects in Bali Indonesia

IGBR Utama, IWR Junaedi
Available at SSRN 2595139
  2015

Botanical Garden as a Recreational Park: Balancing Economic Interest with Conservation

IGBR Utama
Available at SSRN 2595134
  2015

Destination Image of Bali Indonesia in the Perspective of Senior Foreign Tourists

R Utama
Destination Image of Bali Indonesia in the Perspective of Senior Foreign …
  2015

Pengembangan Eco-Tourism Untuk Konservasi Sumber Daya Alamiah Di Negara Sedang Berkembang (Analisis Tourist Area Life Cycle, Index of Irritation, Dan Swot)

IGBR Utama, IG Bagus
Available at SSRN 2544612
  2015

Pariwisata Bali: Antara Pelestarian Budaya Dan Pembangunan Ekonomi

R Utama, IG Bagus
Available at SSRN 2544613
  2015

Pariwisata Menurut Pandangan Islam Dan Muslim

IGBRAI UTAMA, IG Bagus
Available at SSRN 2544617
  2015

Mengukur Dampak Perubahan Iklim Pada Industri Pariwisata Menggunakan Model Computable General Equilibrium

R Utama, IG Bagus
Available at SSRN 2544611
  2015

Analisis Siklus Hidup Destinasi Pariwisata Bali: Kajian Ekonomi Pariwisata Terhadap Destinasi

R Utama, IG Bagus
Available at SSRN
  2015

Destination Loyalty Model of Elderly Foreign Tourists Visiting Bali Tourism Destination

IGBR Utama, IG Bagus
Available at SSRN 2531529
  2014

Destination Image of Bali in the Perspective of Senior Foreign Tourists

R Utama
Available at SSRN 2510755
  2014

Confirmation on the Motivation and Satisfaction Model of Foreign Senior Tourists

R Utama, D Putra, I Nyoman, I Suradnya
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 5 (8), 1206
  2014

The Contradiction of Managing Tourism Objects Based on Culture and Its Heritage

R Utama
Summited for Conference, 24-27
  2014

The Motivation and Satisfaction of Elderly Tourists Visiting Bali Tourism Destination Indonesia

IGBR Utama
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 5 (18), 10-16
  2014

Motivation and Satisfaction of Senior Tourists for Traveling Overseas

IG Bagus, R Utama
International Conference on Academy and Business
  2012
AGROWISATA SEBAGAI PARIWISATA ALTERNATIF

AW FEBRIANTO
KARYA ILMIAH MAHASISWA
  2011
Landscape as an Outdoor Recreation Form (Case Study the Netherlands and Bali, Indonesia)

R Utama, IG Bagus
Available at SSRN 2553138
  2007
Analisis Hubungan Sapta Pesona Dengan Kepuasan Wisatawan Dalam Rangka Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup..

I Utama
  2007
SERVICE SOCIETY ESSAY

IGBR Utama
  2006
Experience Marketing at Eka Karya Botanical Garden Bali

IGBR Utama, J Schulp
  2006
PENGEMBANGAN WISATA KOTA SEBAGAI PARIWISATA MASA DEPAN INDONESIA

IGBR Utama
 
DIMENSI EKONOMI DAN BISNIS: DESAIN MANAJEMEN KUALITAS PELAYANAN PARIWISATA BALI

IGBR Utama, IPO Mahendra
 
STRATEGI MEMINIMALKAN “ECONOMIC LEAKAGES” PADA SEKTOR PARIWISATA

IGBR Utama
 
DIMENSI EKONOMI PARIWISATA KAJIAN DAMPAK EKONOMI DAN KEUNGGULAN PARIWISATA KABUPATEN/KOTA DI PROVINSI BALI

IGBR Utama
 
PEMANFAATAN KEBUN RAYA SEBAGAI TAMAN REKREASI: ANTARA KEPENTINGAN EKONOMI DAN PELESTARIAN ALAM

IGBR Utama
 
Strategi Menuju Pariwisata Bali yang Berkualitas

IGBR Utama
 
DHYANA PURA BADUNG EDISI 2013

IGBRAI UTAMA
 
Model Pencitraan Destinasi Pariwisata Bali Menurut Wisatawan Usia Lanjut Australia

IGBR Utama
 
Category Archives: News

IGBR Utama
 
Ucapan Terima Kasih

A Suryani, A Febransyah, A Sukmawati, BN Polii, B Haryanto, E Noor, …
 
Daftar Peserta Seminar Usulan Penelitian Desentralisasi Tahun 2014 Wilayah Bali

IW KANDI, WSEAK MM, MDAN KEPEMIMPINAN, KAM TAWUR, …
Universitas 1, 081002
 
Academic Paper: MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION OF SENIOR TOURISTS FOR TRAVELING OVERSEAS

IG Bagus, R Utama
 

PEMANFAATAN KEBUN RAYA SEBAGAI TAMAN REKREASI: ANTARA KEPENTINGAN EKONOMI DAN PELESTARIAN ALAM

Kebun Raya Bali semula hanyalah lembaga konservasi tumbuhan telah berkembang menjadi objek wisata yang menawan dan menarik. Untuk mendapatkan informasi perkembangan Kebun Raya Bali, penelitian ini merumuskan masalah sebagai berikut: (1) bagaimanakah karakteristik wisatawan?; (2) bagaimanakah persepsi wisatawan terhadap Kebun Raya Bali?; (3) faktor-faktor apa sajakah yang mendorong dan memotivasi wisatawan untuk berkunjung?; (4) faktor-faktor apa sajakah yang mempengaruhi wisatawan berkunjung ke Kebun Raya Bali?.
Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survey dengan 88 responden sebagai sampel. Instrumen dalam pengumpulan data berupa angket, pengolahan data dilakukan dengan alat analisis sederhana statistik deskriptif, uji beda data berpasangan dengan Wilcoxon signed rank, dan analisis faktor untuk menentukan faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh pada Kebun Raya Bali.
Hasil penelitian ini adalah: (1) wisatawan yang mengunjungi Kebun Raya Bali ditinjau dari berbagai aspek, didominasi oleh, wisatawan nusantara, mahasiswa dan pegawai swasta, kelompok umur antara 20 sampai 40 tahun, wisatawan sering atau telah berulangkali berkunjung, laki-laki lebih banyak daripada perempuan; (2) wisatawan yang mengunjungi Kebun Raya Bali terdorong dan termotivasi karena faktor relaxation, escape, strengthening family bond dan play sebagai faktor pendorong kategori sangat kuat. Faktor pendorong kedua adalah social interaction, prestice, educational opportunity, dan wish fulfillment sebagai faktor pendorong kategori kuat. Sedangkan faktor romance, dan self fulfillment sebagai faktor pendorong kategori lemah; (3) terdapat lima faktor yang berpengaruh di Kebun Raya Bali, yakni faktor tariff dan pelayanan, faktor atraksi alam, faktor aksesibilitas, faktor situasi, dan faktor fasilitas.
Beberapa saran yang diperkirakan dapat bermanfaat bagi pengelola Kebun Raya Bali adalah: (1) sebaiknya mempertimbangkan dan memperhatikan karakteristik wisatawan dalam melakukan diversifikasi kebun raya; (2) memperhatikan faktor pendorong wisatawan yang berkunjung agar wisatawan datang sesuai dengan harapan wisatawan; (3) sebaiknya mempertimbangkan lima faktor yang terbentuk dalam melakukan pengelolaan, pelestarian, dan pemanfaatan kebun raya, sehingga kebun raya ini akan tetap menjadi tujuan masyarakat dalam melakukan rekreasi.
PEMANFAATAN KEBUN RAYA SEBAGAI TAMAN REKREASI: ANTARA KEPENTINGAN EKONOMI DAN PELESTARIAN ALAM. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275028037_PEMANFAATAN_KEBUN_RAYA_SEBAGAI_TAMAN_REKREASI_ANTARA_KEPENTINGAN_EKONOMI_DAN_PELESTARIAN_ALAM [accessed Apr 20, 2015].

Impact Factor List 2014

citefactor-paper-indexingcitefactor-journal-indexing

Search Journal Impact Factor List 2014
0-A  | B  | C  | D  | E  | F  | G  | H  | I  | J  | K  | L  | M  |
N  | O  | P  | Q  | R  | S  | T  | U  | V  | W  | X  | Y  | Z  |

Penutupan lokakarya hildiktipari (Himpunan Lembaga Pendidikan Tinggi Pariwisata Indonesia) dan ICPI (Ikatan Cendikiawan Pariwisata Indonesia) di STPNB..jumat 10 april 2015

Hildiktipari 2015

Penutupan lokakarya hildiktipari (Himpunan Lembaga Pendidikan Tinggi Pariwisata Indonesia) dan ICPI (Ikatan Cendikiawan Pariwisata Indonesia) di STPNB..jumat 10 april 2015

POSITIONING OF ECO TOURISM OBJECTS IN BALI INDONESIA

Eco-Bali

ABSTRACT

Ecotourism objects in this study include: (1) Bali Marine Park, (2) Bali Elephant Safari Park, (3) Bali Barat (West Bali) National Park, (4) Bali Butterfly Park, (5) Bali Reptile Park, (6) Sangeh Monkey Forest, (7) Ubud Botanic Garden, dan (8) Bali Botanic Garden based on the attributes of “facility, attractiveness, accessibility, and service”. This study utilized quantitative method, specifically exploratory research method and conclusive research method based on previous research and existing theories, in order to achieve the research objectives with the goal to generate new findings. Based on multidimensional scaling analysis, the perception of Bali Botanic Garden is similar to that of Sangeh Monkey Forest and Bali Barat National Park. While not in the same category as Bali Botanic Garden, the similarity coordinate of Ubud Botanic Garden is so close that it is a considerable competitor to Bali Botanic Garden. The ecotourism objects perceived to have similarities are Bali Butterfly Park and Ubud Botanic Garden. Another grouping based on similarity are Bali Marine Park and Bali Elephant Safari Park, whose similarity coordinates are quite distant from the other ecotourism objects. see more https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274313887_POSITIONING_OF_ECO_TOURISM_OBJECTS_IN_BALI_INDONESIA

BOTANICAL GARDEN AS A RECREATIONAL PARK: BALANCING ECONOMIC INTEREST WITH CONSERVATION

Kebun Raya Bali

ABSTRACT

Bali Botanic Garden (Kebun Raya Bali) was originally established for botanical research and conservation, but has subsequently grown as an attractive tourism attraction. To attain information on the development of Bali Botanic Garden, this study examines several research questions as follows: (1) what are the characteristics of visitors?; (2) what is the perception of visitors on Bali Botanic Garden?; (3) which factors push and motivate visitors to come?; (4) which factors affect the visitors of Bali Botanic Garden?. This study utilized survey method with 88 respondents as the sample. The instrument used was in the form of questionnaire, which was then analyzed with descriptive statistical tools, and factor analysis to determine factors that affect visitors to visit Bali Botanic Garden. The results are as follows: (1) visitors of Bali Botanic Garden is dominated by domestic tourists, students and private employees, 20 to 40 age group, repeat visitors, and male visitors; (2) visitors of Bali Botanic Garden are pushed and motivated by the needs for relaxation, escape, strengthening family bond and play as very strong push factors. Secondary push factors include the needs for interaction, prestige, educational opportunity, and wish fulfillment as strong push factors. Meanwhile, romance and self-fulfillment are weak push factors; (3) five factors affect Bali Botanic Garden as a destination, including fees and service, natural attraction, accessibility, atmosphere, and facilities. Several recommendations for the management of Bali Botanic Garden include: (1) consider to visitor characteristics when diversifying the botanical garden; (2) pay attention to push factors deemed important by visitors to better match their expectations; (3) consider the five factors that were formed in managing, conserving, and utilizing the botanical garden so that this garden remain a viable tourism destination for locals and visitors

see more https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274313884_BOTANICAL_GARDEN_AS_A_RECREATIONAL_PARK_BALANCING_ECONOMIC_INTEREST_WITH_CONSERVATION

DESTINATION IMAGE OF BALI INDONESIA IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF SENIOR FOREIGN TOURISTS

Komunikasi-1

DESTINATION IMAGE OF BALI INDONESIA IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF SENIOR FOREIGN TOURISTS

I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama[i]

Id:0000-0002-1962-0707

Management Study Program, Universitas Dhyana Pura, Bali, Indonesia

 

Komalawati[ii]

Marketing Management Study Program, Universitas Dhyana Pura, Bali, Indonesia

 

Abstract

The strength of the senior traveler segment is the high purchasing power the length of stay in a destination, making this market segment increasingly important in present and future. Consequently, this research aims to establish a model of motivation and its relationship with the image of Bali as an international tourism destination, especially from the perspective of senior tourists. This research employed survey method and utilized a combination of quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques. Factor analysis condensed various indicators into several key indicators to form a model with goodness of fit. Indicators representing push motivation variable include the improvement of health/fitness and the drive to perform physical exercise. Indicators representing destination identity variable include the culture and nature of Bali. Indicators representing destination creation variable include the service quality of travel agencies and service quality of travel guides. Indicators representing destination image variable include the image of cultural uniqueness and holiday atmosphere of Bali. The survey in this study involved 400 respondents of senior tourists, exclusively only foreign nationals. Goodness of fit is affirmed on the results of the analysis model, which answered the hypothesis that push motivation and destination creation affect destination image.
Keywords: destination creation, destination identity, destination image, motivational push factor, senior tourism.

This research was funded by the Directorate of Higher Education though the Competitive Grant Scheme for the Fiscal Year 2015 (Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi, Skim Penelitian Hibah Bersaing, tahun pendanaan 2015)

 

[i] I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama graduated from PhD Tourism Study Program from Udayana University. He is a full time lecturer of tourism management at the Management study program, He was certified for tourism lectureship in 2013, with the rank of “Lector”. Since 2013, he currently holds the position of Vice Rector for Academic and Student Affairs at the university. Prior to that, he was the Dean of Faculty of Economics and Humanities at Dhyana Pura University (2011 to 2013). His research interests are in the topics of economics and tourism. Email: raiutama@undhirabali.ac.id

[ii] Komalawati is a full time lecturer of marketing management at the Universitas Dhyana Pura, Bali, Indonesia. Email: komalawati_bali@yahoo.co.id

Download Fullpaper https://www.academia.edu/11535762/DESTINATION_IMAGE_OF_BALI_INDONESIA_IN_THE_PERSPECTIVE_OF_SENIOR_FOREIGN_TOURISTS

publications I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rai_Utama_I_Gusti_Bagus

 

ACTIONS:    Email Selected Abstracts    Export Selected Bibliographic Info    VIEW: Selected      Original List     All Versions       All Abstracts       Legend
1.  

Confirmation on the Motivation and Satisfaction Model of Foreign Senior Tourists | Show Abstract | Download This Paper |
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 5, Issue 8,August-2014 1206 ISSN 2229-5518
Number of Pages in PDF File: 10
Utama, Rai

Universitas Dhyana Pura

Darma Putra, I. Nyoman

Udayana University

Suradnya, I Made

Bali Tourism Institute
Posted:
07 Nov 14
Last Revised:
01 Dec 14
48
(257,289)

2.  

Agrotourism as an Alternative Form of Tourism in Bali Indonesia | Show Abstract | Download This Paper |
The International Conference on Sustainable Development March 6, 2012, Inna Bali Beach Hotel Sanur Bali Indonesia
Number of Pages in PDF File: 21
Utama, Rai

Universitas Dhyana Pura
Posted:
02 Nov 14
33
(296,935)

3.  

Utama, Rai

Universitas Dhyana Pura
Posted:
29 Nov 14
Last Revised:
10 Dec 14
28
(313,541)

4.  

Utama, Rai

Universitas Dhyana Pura

Mahadewi, Ni Made Eka

Udayana University
Posted:
02 Nov 14
12
(382,121)

5.  

Utama, Rai

Universitas Dhyana Pura
Posted:
22 Jan 15
6
(408,149)

6.  

Utama, Rai

Universitas Dhyana Pura

Komalawati

Universitas Dhyana Pura
Posted:
31 Mar 15
5
(412,193)

7.  

Utama, Rai

Universitas Dhyana Pura
Posted:
18 Apr 15
4
(416,436)

8.  

Positioning of Eco Tourism Objects in Bali Indonesia | Show Abstract | Download This Paper |
Number of Pages in PDF File: 10
Utama, Rai

Universitas Dhyana Pura
Posted:
18 Apr 15
3
(420,832)

Pengantar Industri Pariwisata

DePublish-1

Judul Pengantar Industri Pariwisata
Pengarang I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama, SE., MMA., MA
Institusi Universitas Dhyana Pura
Kategori Buku Referensi
Bidang Ilmu Pariwisata
ISBN 978-602-280-328-7
Ukuran Unesco
Halaman xii, 231 hlm
Harga Rp.65.000
Ketersediaan Pesan Dulu
Sinopsis

– See more at: http://www.deepublish.co.id/penerbit/buku/547/Pengantar-Industri-Pariwisata

Survey: Research for Doctoral program in Tourism Studies Udayana University, Bali

chart

Subject: Research for Tourism Bali-INA Survey Research for Doctoral Program in Tourism Studies Udayana University, Bali Senior Visitors’ Survey (≥ 55 Years Old)   Dear Madam/Sir, (if you are not eligible for this survey, please forward to your friends that maybe eligible) We kindly ask your participation on a survey regarding your visit(s) to Bali. This survey is in conjunction to a doctoral research at Udayana University, with the specific topic of senior tourism. We know how valuable your time is and appreciate your making the effort to help us improve our service by completing the questionnaire. Your participation in this survey is greatly appreciated, and your opinion and comments will be of great value to us to serve you better. There will be no risk anticipated from participating in the survey. The link provided below is safe and trusted. Your response will remain anonymous and completely confidential, and your participation in this study is strictly voluntary. Would you like to help us? you can fill it out online, just click url/link below: http://goo.gl/zbmqgI   Yours truly,

Rai in Bedugul

Rai Utama, I Gusti Bagus Student Number: 1090771010 Ph.D Student in Tourism Studies Udayana University, Bali, INDONESIA Phone: +6281337868577   Responses of Visitor for currently tourism Bali from Senior citizen perspective https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1THViAgve9Ar5qih9qfC0t1d2dPmRk30S21nZ3DjJVj8/viewanalytics

LANDSCAPE AS AN OUTDOOR RECREATION FORM

LANDSCAPE AS AN OUTDOOR RECREATION FORM

(Case Study The Netherlands[1] and Bali, Indonesia[2])

by

I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama[3]

P.hD Tourism Student, Udayana University

email: igustibagusraiutama@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

As it is known, leisure has a huge impact on the earth’s landscape. Where as landscapes change because of natural and human forces. The change of landscape as a result of leisure related issues tend to have either positive or negative impact on the landscape. It is also evident that landscapes are of different nature and due to this; they have different leisure and tourism potential. The research report therefore analyses the potential if countryside landscape in the Southern part of Netherlands, and villages in Bali. Specifically, the report focuses on a central question “how could outdoor recreation contribute to the development of attractive cultural and natural landscapes in the province of Drenthe, and Bali as comparative studies?” The research group therefore is determined to try and present the area of Drenthe and Villages in Bali research on its potentials on development of outdoor recreation. The report focuses on the weaknesses, strengths and opportunities that are considered for the development of the Drenthe as a cultural and natural landscape destination.

Keywords: landscape, outdoor recreation, leisure, tourism

 

INTRODUCTION

Tourism is seen an agent of preservation and change of landscapes and landscape elements. For example, when tourism opportunities are expanded in an area, much action and change takes place within the area. This change may include creation of walking paths, beatification of the area, and rise of new buildings among others. On the other hand landscapes are transforming from production to consumption. Many destination areas are noted by the differences in landscapes, such as Netherlands is seen as having a flat landscape while Spain maybe hilly. The pace and scale of change associated with landscapes vary considerably from place to place and for any particular place, from time to time. Wall once pointed out that traditional, relict, modified and new landscape features may be juxtaposed in a kaleidoscope of land uses and visual forms, and these features may have different meanings to different people. (Wall, 2000: 51) For instance in the Netherlands, tulips may be seen as great attraction to the foreigners but to the Dutch people, they might see it as simply farming. Due to the differences from regions to regions, strategies of promoting destination visits have taken a different perspective. Those strategies sometimes are planned to boost tourist potential, and to protect areas from being over visited. As such, it can be regarded that outdoor recreation and tourism developments influence landscapes. In this case, the objectives of different strategies are designed to keep balance of the impact on outdoor recreation and tourism on landscapes.

Aim of the research

The report main aim is to discuss the current situation of Drenthe’s landscape. It will stretch the research on various issues such as which are the opportunities that Drenthe has on developing attractive outdoor and cultural recreation in Drenthe and specifically the village of Gieten[4] which is situated in Drenthe, and compared with landscape’s Bali as an outdoor recreation form.

Problem Statement

While involving desktop research and observation of the research area, the main overall objective of the research is focused on how outdoor recreation can contribute to the development of attractive cultural and natural landscapes in the province of Drenthe as form of outdoor recreation. The Province is one of the three northern provinces of the Netherlands. It is an extremely attractive province with a variety of beautiful landscape and compared with landscape’s Bali as an outdoor recreation form.

Objectives of Research

The objective of the research is to analyze outdoor recreation in Gieten and the contribution to the development of attractive cultural and natural landscapes in the province of Drenthe, and Bali, Indonesia. Then, detailed research questions are settled for further research, which will be mainly carried out by observation and photographing as data collection. To answer all the research questions listed in the checklist, qualitative by SWOT analysis to contribute the result analysis in consequence.

Research questions

The study was aimed at knowing how the outdoor recreation contributes to the development of attractive cultural and natural landscapes in the province of Drenthe, and compared with landscape’s Bali as an outdoor recreation form.

 

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

The Natural and Cultural Landscapes as an Outdoor Recreation Form.

The term “landscape” refers to an ideological concept, which stands for a group of people from certain classes and signified them. On the other hand, it reflects the way these people balance their lives with nature. (Cosgrove, 1984:15) One of the landscape attracting points to tourists may be authenticity, which creates the opportunity for visiting places keeping remote from metropolis and crowdedness. Goode (1994) promoted that urban tourism will be in necessity of being informed by tourists initially as “indigenous” population. Moreover, he mentioned that, in most cases, dwellers are getting fewer and fewer.

Dimension of participating and partnership lies in the balance between the public authority and development communities. This means that public authorities may be engaged in building amenities for recreational purposes, but there has to be the involvement or partnership between local development clubs and perhaps leisure entrepreneurs (Williams 1995).

Consequently, heritage manipulation could be in the tendency to attract officially attention, and get abstracted from a more authentic community past. Towards the project of Drenthe, there are two points of concentration: first, the conception of landscape is not the same as choosing to look at or paint the urban areas, but a way of viewing and feeling; on the other hand, some researchers in 1900s sought to exclude the presence of those who lived and worked in the countryside. In this case, the inclusion of the inhabitants of Drenthe and their daily main activities is also explained.

How Landscapes are experienced by Visitors

Landscapes comprises of the visible features of an area of land, including physical elements such as landforms, living elements of flora and fauna, abstract elements such as lighting and weather conditions, and human elements, for instance human activity or the built environment. On a scholarly note, Forman and Godron (1986) defines landscape as a heterogeneous land area composed of interacting ecosystems that repeat in similar form throughout. For instance, the Amazon jungle has the same repeated ecosystem, therefore having its own unique and recognized landscape. This definition draws attention to the arrangement of landscape components (pattern or structure) as well as their interactive nature (function or process).

Forman and Gordon (1986) continue to point that these elements of landscapes are arbitrary and determined by the observer based on his/her objectives. For instance, a patch can be delineated on the basis of land cover, such as vegetation, water, or urban development, or by using other criteria such as microclimate. A patch can be a red pine stand, a city, a lake, an area of similar air temperature, a particular soil type, a continent, an aggregated group of herbaceous vegetation, etcetera.

Pearce (1996) stated that transformation of tourism can be regarded as one of the characteristics of tourism in spatial phenomenon. The transformation influences the physical and representational base of tourist destination in tourism authenticity and identity. As a place of landscape and outdoor recreation, tourist destination stands for a historical and cultural meaning and is suggested to be understood through temporal and cultural context. Landscapes and outdoor recreation, as one of the tourism industry behaviors, has to focus on not only on the sight views, but the consumers as well, which are termed as landscape tourists. (Pearce, 1996: 76)

Pearce (1982, Fennel, 2003: 34) states that there is the need to exist a stronger emphasis in linking roles and motivations with social and environmental preferences of tourists, (and in this case, outdoor or adventure tourists) in order for destinations to match better with markets, travel expectations and accommodation. For example, more adventurous tourists will choose either camping sites or places with extensive or vigorous activities like hunting. For the reason that Landscapes concentrate on conservative and sustainable development, tourists with different attitudes towards landscapes are traveling in psychological sense, which is distinctive to other types of travelers. To have a better understanding of the motivation towards landscape tourists, there is a ladder adaptation based on Maslow’s hierarchy, which is presented in the Figure. 2.1

Relaxation

Self-directed: need for bodily reconstruction, relaxation Other-directed

Stimulation

Self-directed: a concern for own safety

Other-directed: a concern for others’ safety

Relationship

Self-directed: giving love, affection, maintaining, relationships. Other-directed: receiving affection, to be with a group, membership, initiating a relationship

Self-esteem and development

Self-directed: development of skills, special interests, competence, mastery

Other-directed: external rewards, prestige, glamour of traveling, connoisseur, self-esteem

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2.1 The Travel career ladder.

Source: Ryan (1998)

There can be found five levels of motivation in the system. The travel career ladder focuses tourists’ patterns or motivations, but not concentrates on certain motive for traveling. From the bottom level to the top level, there are a concern with biological needs, safety and security needs, relationship development and extension needs, special interest and self-development needs, and fulfillment of deep involvement needs.

These five motivational levels are listed respectively, which support the evidence that most tourists belong to accomplishing high-level needs. And they search for ‘peak experience’ when landscape tourism occurs. Therefore, the experiences could well lead to dream fulfillment or inner peace and harmony. (Swarsbrooke et al 2003).

Understanding outdoor recreation

Simply defined, recreation refers to experiences and activities chosen and pursued by the individual in his/her free time; the basis being that the experience sought and activities pursued, in the real sense of the word, ‘re-creates’ the individual so that he/she may be refreshed to enable him/her to resume daily obligations (John, 1986)

According to Kraus, (1966), recreation consists of an activity or experience, usually chosen voluntarily by the participant, either because of the immediate satisfaction to be derived from it, or because he perceives some personal or social values to be achieved by it. It is carried on in leisure time, and has no work connotations, usually enjoyable and when it is carried on as part of organized or community services; it is designed to meet constructive and socially worthwhile goals of the individual participant, the group and society at large.

Recreation consist of indoor and outdoor as well, while outdoor recreational is opportunities and activities related with everything for instance birding, boating, biking and trail riding (http://dnr.state.il.us/outdoor/index.htm)

Outdoor recreation can be defined as just being outdoors for fun. However, the Henry center for recreation in England has broadly defined outdoor recreation as consisting of creative activities, health activities and informal game plays. Others that have been included are like: high adrenalin, non-competitive activities e.g. mountaineering, commercially runs activities, study of the natural environment, educational activities and programs, research and excavations, conservation volunteering, and sustainable journeys to outdoor recreation.

Related with outdoor recreation, the rural areas have long been seen and used as appropriate locations for recreation and tourism activities. Recreation and tourism in many rural areas have gone from being primarily passive and minor elements in the landscape to become highly active and dominant agents of change and control of that landscape and of associated communities (Butler, at al, 1998). More so, recreation may be seen as a pursuit of an experience and may therefore have some elements which make up the satisfaction of the experience. This satisfaction may be in terms of emotional, physical or even psychological. Elements that make up the recreational experience have been simplified as seen in the Figure 2.2

Figure 2.2 Principle elements in recreational experience

(Williams, 1995)

To explain the above diagram, recreational experience may be that activity that is being done e.g., walking in the garden. The environmental context maybe the setting of the area the person has chosen to be. For example, someone may choose to read a novel behind a scenic lake etc. The benefit of outdoor recreation from planner perspective comprises economic, environmental, health, and social benefit.

Trends in outdoor recreation

Outdoor recreation, like many other leisure activities have had different trends overtime. This maybe is a result of changing preference of the consumers and the change in time, space and resources. Many consumers are opting for healthier lifestyles, or a more ethical way of having leisure. Swarsbrooke et al (2003) has listed many trends attributed to adventure tourism, and in this, outdoor recreation. One of the main trends Swarsbrooke (2003) states is the current concern and the sensitive to green issues. This maybe be such as responsible tourism that is merrily for holidaying while also taking care of the environment. On the other hand, the writer explains that health issues have become a catalyst of trends for recreation. For example, consumers will tend to move away from the heavy and hectic way of life in the urban areas, in search for a clean and fresh countryside for relaxation of mind.  However, there are various outdoor recreational trends that have been recognized over the years. In the United States, for example, Cordell (2005) has stated that most rapidly increasing numbers of participants are in walking, sightseeing, swimming, picnicking and boating. He also notes that, activities that used to be much enjoyed in earlier years like hiking and camping are still growing at a moderate rate, while consumptive activities such as hunting are declining. It is also good to note that due to technological advancements, motorized outdoor activities such as snowmobiling or jet skiing are activities that are increasing most in popularity (Cordell, 2005).

Statistically, the rates with which some European countries engage in outdoor recreation also depend on the environmental surrounding. For example, countries like the Scandinavian countries tend to engage in hiking or mountaineering or even skiing due to the fact that the country’s ecosystem is hilly. This is shown in the figures below of the participation rate in some recreational activities in six European countries, between years 1990 to 2000 as comporison study.

 

 

Table. 2.1

Participation rates in some recreation activities in six European countries, Canada and the United States in the 1990s and 2000s.

Recreation activity

Participation rate in %

Denmark

Finland

Holland

Italy

Norway

Canada

U.S.A.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g)

Walking

63

68

74

40

84

67

Hiking

19

38

82

24

Bicycling

55

68

6

47

29

Jogging, running

14

16

16

4

26

Camping

18

2

19

14

Picnicking

10

28

45

26

49

Hunting

1

8

4

9

5

7

Picking berries and other ‘forest fruits’

2

57

35

11

Picking wild mushrooms

3

41

21

13

Cross-country horseback riding

1

2

6

3

4

2

5

Studying and enjoying nature

56

51

21

31

Cross-country skiing

40

2

50

4

3

Sources: Bell and Lisa (2007)

From the table above, it is evident that most Holland tourists enjoy walking as an outdoor recreation activity more that any other. Other notable activities that can be seen are, bicycling, jogging and horse riding. However, Cordell (2003) notes that many of the recreational trends that are emerging in USA (mentioned previously) are likely to develop in Europe and hence in Holland as one of the European country. As seen from the information and the comparison data of Europe and USA above, most outdoor recreational activities are on the rise. To sum it up, The notable ones are;

Walking: According to the table above it is notable that a good 74 % of participation rate of Tourists and Dutch people engage in walking. A report also by the UK Liason leisure group (2002) noted that 77% of UK adults, or about 38 million people, said they walk for pleasure at least once a month. This therefore is evident that walking has become and will continue to be the most popular trend of outdoor recreational activity.

Bicycling: Despite being in the category of walking, hiking is more straneous as participants or tourists want to have a more active recreational time. Hiking for some countries has become more popular and as per the table also, Bicycling showed a huge participation rate in Holland, that of 64%.

Hiking: In Holland, more and more people are taking day trips perhaps due to the fact that the coutry is not very large and can be accessed in all corners easily. Hiking has then become more popular and as one survey stated Sports and sportive kinds of recreation, as hiking and cycling, are the most popular daytrips in the Netherlands. According to De Vries (2005)  of  The “Continue Vakantie Onderzoek” states that about 60 million are hiking trips and almost 50 million cycling trips. After this category going out is the biggest city.

Hiking is the most popular holiday activity, followed by going out for dinner and going for a ride. Next to hiking swimming and cycling are undertaken the most as sportive activities.

Table 2.2

Day-trips in the Netherlands according to the day-trip environment,

2001-2002

City, village

Agricultural area

Dunes, beach, seaside

Forests, moors

Lakes, rivers

other

Total

%

´ 1,000

Day-camping etc.

22

5

8

46

13

6

4,743

Going for a hike

17

9

13

51

6

4

55,531

Biking

17

29

8

38

10

4

47,830

Horse riding

18

30

2

32

1

10

3,519

Running, fitness

24

10

18

51

3

7

3,782

Going for a ride

30

28

6

46

8

6

19,036

Sources: Cordell (2004)

As a part from the three main recreational activityi listed above that are becoming popular, others like: Day camping, Horse riding, Running, Going for a ride will continue to become popular in the Netherlands. It is also evident from the tables above that nature will determine largely many types of emerging trends in outdoor recreation. For example: fruit picking, like berries, mushroom picking, nature studying as a recreational activity and cross country skiing are some of the emerging traditional outdoor recreational activities according to Cordell (2004).

As many tourists therefore undertake the above rising trends of outdoor recreation, there are also some positive and negative impacts that may come along with development of those activities or even engaging in them.

Table 2.3

Economic Impacts of Leisure Activities

Positive

negative

  1. Injection of money to the local community
  2. Direct and indirect job creation e.g. the employment of workers at an adventure site.
  3. generation of income tax, which comes from entrepreneurs and other tourist enterprises
  4. Offers development of small and medium sized enterprises and family business

 

  1. Seasonality of demand leading to under use of the developed infrastructure, e.g. use of bike routes in winter or wet seasons is less.
  2. Opportunity costs with money invested for leisure facilities not being utilized for other purposes like health education
  3. Over dependent of the type of tourism associated with recreational activity especially in developing countries.

(From: Swarsbrooke 2003)

Swarsbrooke continues to mention other impacts of adventure tourism, and for our case, outdoor recreation. As seen below are the environmental and social impacts:

Table 2.4

Environmental and social impacts of tourism

Environmental Impacts

Social impacts

  1. Development of infrastructure may cause problems e.g. development of bike routes may cause felling off trees and other notable natural features.
  2. leaving of waste causing air pollution
  3. Some activities of outdoor recreation cause damage to the flora and fauna e.g. walking on a park may destroy some indigenous plants
  4. Disruption of feeding and breeding patterns if over visited
  5. Driving within the recreational place may damage the ecosystem

 

  1. Tourist may behave in a way the hosts may find offensive e.g. littering of a place where people are used to dustbins or loud hooting of cars.
  2. Tourists may introduce bad habits to the hosts eg drug trafficking
  3. Tourist may be seen as role models by host people especially if they come from a developed country.
  4. On the other hand, it may cause an inferiority complex or feeling to the host communitye e.g. the feeling that the hosts are poor or underdeveloped
  5. It may also increase the crime of the host community as they may be influenced to steal from the tourists

(Adapted from Swarsbrooke 2003)

 

Opportunities of Outdoor Recreation

Opportunities of outdoor recreation may first be determined by the concerned parties in a state before being implemented. Williams (1995) states that the organization of and actions of local authorities to develop outdoor recreation are very variable and this may be partly attributed to lack of a policy direction. On the other hand, the private sector has a more driven ability to create excellent leisure opportunities since the sector is a market driven one. The terms they invest in are characterized by the returns the sector gets and the returns are financially measured. Private sectors for recreational purposes are characterized by such amenities like pools tables, snooker houses, bowling centers, among others. The voluntary sector falls between the private and the public sector. This Williams notes that it is normally dominated by community based clubs and groups that focus on a particular activity e.g. drama, theatre, gardening or football club. Therefore, for a proper opportunity of recreation provision, all the sectors must collaborate so that such opportunities of leisure and recreation can be equal and be of standard.

 

Summary of the literature

As seen from the literature, landscapes tend to vary from one another depending on locations. The types of landscapes also influences the types of leisure activities that are going to happen or be carried put in a particular destination. On the other hand, outdoor recreation also depends highly on the typology of landscapes. A hilly place will tend to have people visiting it for the purposes of climbing. A snowy place will have people going for skating and a beautiful landscape will have people going for walks or picnics. More over as seen in the review, there are benefits of outdoor recreation that range from: a healthy mind to a chance of investment for the local community. More to that, it has been seen that various outdoor recreational trends have begun to rise and some have stagnated. For example, Hiking, biking, riding horses, camping, walking will still be the main outdoor recreational activities experienced by visitors in years to come.

 

 

METHODOLOGY

 

Research Questions

The project was aimed at knowing how the outdoor recreation could contribute to the development of attractive cultural and natural landscapes in the province of Drenthe, and villages in Bali as well.

Collecting Data

According to Trochim, (2006), direct observation is collecting data include everything from field research where one lives in another context or culture for a period of time to photographs that illustrate some aspect of the phenomenon. The data can be recorded in many of the same ways as interviews (stenography, audio, and video) and through pictures, photos or drawings (e.g., those courtroom drawings of witnesses are a form of direct observation). In this case, the data was collected in relation to the resources present at the landscapes in Gieten-Drenthe, and four villages in Bali with landscape’s Bali as an outdoor recreation form as cases studies.

First, the group made an observation list describing what kind of landscape recourses present in Gieten-Drenthe, and Bali and the quality of those as well. Then, the group bought a map and geographic book about Gieten, read and figured out the resources and the position on the map. The next step was making an itinerary and field trip. Finally the group went to Gieten and Bali made observations, took photos, and communicated with locals around the area. At the same time all the group members made notes on the observation list and then we discussed about what we observed. After that, a final detailed observation list including opinions from all group members was made.

 

FINDING LANSCAPE IN DRENTHE[5]

 

1). Natural landscape:

a)     Forestry: there are so many trees along the road and surrounding the house in Drenthe. It is useful for walking, biking, jogging and sight-seeing.

b)     Garden view: the garden view in Drenthe is so beautiful. Houses are so nice and diversified here. Besides, the gardens are full of flowers of different kinds which make other people feel so delight while visiting. It is so attractive as if visitors are walking in a very big park not a village anymore.

c)     Farms: there are some small farms in Drenthe located within the village turn this place to become a truly countryside with small farms and small forests interpose together.

d)     Small lakes and canals: there are some small lakes and canals where people can go fishing, boating or even swimming if possible.

e)     Meadow: there are several meadows where people can play food ball, camping, barbecue and do some other out door recreation activities.

f)      Temperate climate: good weather , especially in Spring and summer time.

g)     Zoo in Emmen (Drenthe, 11)

h)     Etcetera

2). Cultural landscape:

a)     Friendly people: visitors can meet friendly and helpful people everywhere in Drenthe.

b)     Motorbike races at TT circuit in Assen (Drenthe, 11)

c)     Cultural festivals: SIVO festival which is taken place in 31th week every year when dancers from over the world come to outdoor (a village of Drenthe) to perform.

d)     Traditional farm houses: there are so many Dutch traditional farm houses here which are still in a very good condition.

e)     Old church, sculptor garden, museum, etc.

3). How are the landscapes experienced by tourists in Drenthe?

In most tourists’ mind, Drenthe is an agricultural province. Besides, this place is a very fresh and peaceful place. Tourists come here for out door recreation. Except from that, this place is also a good place for cultural activities because it has many historical sites, old traditional farm houses, and many other cultural festivals. In conclusion, Drenthe has the potential for sightseeing tour, camping and cultural tourism.

Furthermore, it is also a very good place to conduct some sport activities and convalescence. In the near future, it is suggested that the tourism department and local government in Drenthe should organize more cultural activities and sport events for the locals as well as tourists. Besides, holiday resort should be built to serve for stressful tourists who are looking for fresh, quiet and beautiful place to refresh.  Some of the Attraction and activities that the tourists can experience are: Flora and fauna, planting, fishing, forestry, and fabrication. More over amenities that can also be found which are essential for tourists are:: Hotel/Villa, Restaurant/Food Services, Shops, and Supermarket ready to serve the visitors in Gieten.  However such amenities and attractions have their own strengths and weaknesses. As the researchers found out, they are:

Strengths:

  1. Cheap prices, easy for a consumer to afford.
  2. Supermarket is located inside the village, the convenient for visitors because they don’t have to carry so much stuff when they are traveling.
  3. Home stay or bed and breakfast in ancient typical Dutch
  4. House so that visitor can enjoy the authentic Dutch lifestyle.
  5. Bike hiring is available so it’s easy for visitors to travel around so the visitors don’t have to bring their own bikes on cars.

Weaknesses

  1. Small size restaurants and cafes, good for small place like Gieten but if you have more guests or visitors difficult to accommodate.
  2. Service delivery is not professional.
  3. The service is not diversified and in the future, they must have more tourism products such as skate boarding, souvenirs and boat renting;  tourism activities

 

Institution

Travel bureaus and banks are important institution for the visitors. As is the case Gieten has been promoted by some travel bureaus as an interesting tourist site in Drenthe (www.vacations-abroad.com).  As for bureaus situated in Gieten, there is no information centre for tourists, only one travel bureau which is not enough for tourist information needs.

Environment       

Nature landscapes such as forest, lake, rivers, and park can be found nearby village of Gieten.  The housing and environment naturally surrounding of the village are potential as outdoor recreation spot. Agriculture is the traditional job of the local and in urban tourist eyes it very attractive to them and it offers them a chance to study about agriculture and practice with the farmers. After that they get an interesting experience since they enjoy being a farmer as this always different from their routine jobs.

 

 

Form of Outdoor recreations in Gieten-Drenthe

 

1. Garden Viewing

Many kinds of varieties of flowers can be found in Gieten, and outdoor recreation such as sightseeing around the village is possible and prospective to package as a product of recreation package. While Gieten’s village can be reached easily, the local community also accepts the presence of visitors.

  1. 2.     Fishing

Lakes and rivers in Gieten can be packaged as outdoor recreation for fishing and other activities as well. As typical of other places in Holland, the rivers and lakes in Gieten are an attraction to visitors.

  1. 3.     Biking

While Gieten is a small city also as a village, it is not too large and biking can be as alternative to reach outdoor recreation spots in Gieten. Bike rentals can be found easily in Gieten. Visitors can spend time by biking as outdoor recreation.

  1. 4.     Walking

Some parts of village of Gieten also can be reached easily by walking because the village is relatively small. The beautiful landscape, artistic housing, beauty gardens, and other panorama become attraction outdoor recreation in Gieten. Trends in outdoor recreation in Gieten as the group witnessed was people who want to have a nice and relaxing time. The place is a small town with not many people living there and the visitors who visit the place want the place to be noise free and that is what they get. Most of the visitors are from big cities that are tired of their busy lives and want some time out from work as well as the noise and the crowd they see in big cities. Visitors who come and visit Gieten are not disappointed as the place is quite peaceful and naturally beautiful for people to enjoy and have a nice time.

The weaknesses of outdoor recreation in Gieten, Drenthe

Lack of Information: About the village/city, especially for holiday during holiday the visitors have lots leisure time while English information about the village can not be gotten easily. For Dutch visitors it is easy to get information via the ANWB and VVV offices, but for foreign visitors, it is very difficult to find any information.

The opportunities of outdoor recreation in Gieten-Drenthe

According to Bell and Lisa (2007) as well as Cordell (2004), certain activities have become popular and are being preferred by tourists whether local or foreign. Such recreational activities are like: Camping, horse riding, walking and running, biking, Hiking, in the aadditionally. It is also evident from the research explained in the review above that nature will determine largely many types of emerging trends in outdoor recreation. For example, Fruit picking, like berries and mushroom picking, nature studying as a recreational activity and cross country skiing are some of the emerging traditional outdoor recreational activities according to Cordell (2004).

Gieten is an attractive location, small village with not much people around, place has ample opportunity for biking and tourists have enough time to ride bicycles. Biking saves lots of time for tourists and they have the opportunity to view places quickly than they can do by walking. Biking being one of the favorite sports activities of the Dutch people healthy and gives the locals a chance to earn some extra money as they rent bikes there. Holland is famous for its gardens and flowers, well Gieten also has lots of gardens but small in size though beautiful, the place has the ability to attract more tourists because of its beautiful nature. As stated in the literature, Fishing is an ever rising outdoor recreational activity (Cordell 2004,2005).

Therefore in Gieten garden fishing is also an attractive activity for the tourist and the place has lots of opportunity for it, they can develop the area more for attracting more tourists, as the Dutch local tourists like to do fishing a lot.  In Holland, more and more people are taking day trips perhaps due to the fact that the country is not very large and can be accessed in all corners easily. Though the place is small and at quite far end of Holland it is still quite easily accessible but tourists would still people prefer hiking instead of biking as they enjoy the adventure of hiking. All these combined can really become an opportunity for outdoor recreation for tourists.

 


 

In general, the researchers made of the area as part of the analysis of some strengths of Gieten; Such Strengths are:

1. Attractiveness

The attractiveness of Gieten is an opportunity and a comparative strength with others destination. The uniqueness of Gieten can be seen from the nature, culture, and environment of Gieten’s community that’s all become opportunities to develop outdoor recreation more professionally.

  1. 2.     Relative nearby attractions in others places in Drenthe.

Gieten nearby destinations such as Groningen and Assen are already popular in Holland as a city while at the moment preferences of modern people more likely enjoy the natural attraction and landscapes as outdoor recreation activities.

The threats of outdoor recreation in Gieten, Drenthe

Land uses problems: Many landscapes are changing due to the housing developments and new house projects, hotels, camping places and play yards being developed in Gieten.

Pollution: Facilities to support the emerging attractions can also prove to be a threat to outdoor recreation. As people need a clean place with good environment, tourists visit gieten due to its good condition. However, when there is so many tourists coming to this place, it may cause environmental pollution. Example: Air pollution through the car traffic and cooking from the hotels.  Water pollution: When people do the fishing boating damage the waters and canals in Gieten Land pollution: Garbage will be disposed as a result of many outdoor tourists visiting the place.

 

How can the outdoor recreations mentioned above contribute to development of attractive cultural and Natural landscapes in Gieten.

As mentioned in the literature review walking is a preferred activity of the Dutch people, (bell and Lisa 2007). Walking makes the view easier as it is a small town and by walking tourists can easily see everything without missing much of the tourist sites in Gieten. The place is visited by people who want to have a chilling time from their busy lives and Gieten has lots of opportunities for people to chill and relax as it is a quiet town with small cafes and restaurants where people can easily sit n n relax. Such recreations are not yet well exposed for a diversified tourism purposes as such. If such recreational resources are diversified according to the listed emerging trends, Gietens could have very attractive cultural and natural landscapes. For example, taking some of the recreational activities suitable for the place, the report will examine some current recreational opportunities and those that could be developed.

 

Current Activities can be made (2007)

Garden Views: opportunities to package the parks in Gieten as attractions by sightseeing tour trips and places to offer cultural drama festivals and dances.

1)     Fishing: opportunities to package the outdoor recreation for fishing and other activities.

2)     Biking: That can be used to offer annual biking races.

3)     Visiting Farmers: These farmers can contribute also to offering visitors with innovated cultural farmer’s festivals. This can be like the cheese shows in Alkmaar.

4)     Walking: the beauty landscape, artistic housing, beauty gardens, and other panorama become attraction outdoor recreation in Gieten.

5)     Camping: tourist can camp at the grass land and enjoy the weather and beautiful landscape here.

To be developed (according to Cordell 2005)

  1. Boating: it is so interesting for tourists to row a kayak in the lakes or the canals here. Boat races can be implemented to be frequent all round the year apart from winter seasons
  2. Visiting traditional houses: old traditional houses like a lively museum to remind the young people about the previous generation life and culture.
  3. Leisure lifestyle: for people who are so stressful with city life can come here just to enjoy fresh air and leisure countryside lifestyle.
  4. Fruit picking e.g. berry picking and mushroom picking.

As such therefore, Gieten has the potential to develop cultural and natural attractive landscape as it has been clearly seen that most of its strength to comes from the fact that it has various important natural and cultural resources.

Comparative study with Landscapes’s Bali

The case study is used, and this research will be focused in Bali Province since it is presently used as the icon of tourism in Indonesia[6].  The villages are collected as case studies of landscapes in Bali, they are: Bayung Gede Village, Kintamani District in Bangli Regency, Candikuning Village, Baturiti District in Tabanan Regency, Blimbingsari Village, Melaya District in Jembrana Regency, and Pelaga Village, Petang District in Badung Regency. This research uses qualitative approach which involves some library researches and observation. Qualitative method according to Veal (1997), refers to the methods and techniques which describe and emphasize more on qualitative rather that quantitative information.  This research is designed using qualitative descriptive research methods.

  1. 1.     Bayung Gede Village, Kintamani District-Bangli Regency

Bayung Gede is the first village surveyed to collect information relate to rural with landscape as outdoor recreation form. It is a rural tourism projected by Government of Bali Regency located nearby the eco-tourism Kintamani which famous for beautiful sceneries of Batur Lake and active volcano Mount Batur. The main tourist attraction offered at Bayung Gede Village is “Kuburan Ari-ari” (placenta grave). The local communities of Bayung Gede Village believe it as spiritual of inhabitants of familiarity. The district government of Bangli sees the potency and develop it become tourism object which added with some creations and innovations to enrich alternative tourist attractions in Bali.  In addition, Bayung Gede Village also has other potencies such as orange farms and the beautiful panorama that developed as agrotourism. Besides, lush vegetables grow in this village. Oranges and vegetables are currently produced to supply local markets in Bali Province. Tourists who visit Bayung Gede Village are dominantly still attracted by the unique of “Kuburan Ari-ari” although the village has lots potencies on agricultural resources as an outdoor recreation form. The activities’s outdoor recreation can be packed for harvesting, planting, walking, hiking, bicycling, jogging, running, picnicking, studying and enjoying nature, culutural activities, etc.

  1. 2.     Candikuning Village, Baturiti District-Tabanan Regency

Candikuning Village is a project which was initiated by the district government of Baturiti, Tabanan Regency. Following the success story of Bedugul “Beratan Lake” and “Ulun Danu Temple” and the botanical garden of Kebun Raya Bali the village is surveyed and promoted as agrotourism in Bali.  The Botanical Garden is one of the leading tourist attractions in Tabanan Regency contributes lots to the local communities and stimulates related businesses such as flower “krisan” shops, vegetable traditional market, fruit “strawberry”, and organic plantations as an outdoor recreation form. The activities’s outdoor recreation can be packed for harvesting, planting, walking, hiking, bicycling, jogging, running, picnicking, studying and enjoying nature, biodiversity and botanical research, etc.

 

  1. 3.     Blimbingsari Village, Melaya District, Jembrana Regency

Blimbingsari is a small village of approximately 200 couple families, located in western part of Bali Province approximately 120 km from the Capital City of Denpasar. The village was formed and developed once the Dutch colonized Indonesia. It is predominantly populated by Christian Protestant communities. Albeit it becomes a Christian village, Blimbingsari still exists in Balinese culture and tradition practices.  Predominantly, the populations work for agricultural sector. The cacao and coconut farms are the main products of Blimbingsari Village. The opportunity of Blimbingsari to become an agricultural attraction was motivated by “Suyaga Ayub”, a pastor of Blimbingsari church. Dominantly, tourists attracted by the unique traditions of Christian communities which are implemented by Balinese-style church, and its story becomes one of the Christian villages in Bali.

The village is also nearby Palasari Village with Catholics populations, moreover it is both close to West Bali National Park which functions as ecotourism and conservation and Palasari water irrigation (DAM) as an outdoor recreation form which have been developed and promoted by the local government as tourist destination in Bali. At the moment, that village is promoting as the rural tourism “desa wisata”. The activities’s outdoor recreation can be packed for harvesting, planting, walking, hiking, bicycling, jogging, running, picnicking, studying and enjoying nature, culutural activities, fishing, etc.

  1. 4.     Pelaga Village, Petang District, Badung Regency

Pelaga is a small town in the middle part of Bali. It is surrounded by mountains and forests. This place is popoler with the landscape for agricultural activities especialy as agrotourism. The agrotourism at Pelaga is motivated by private entrepreneurs for the purpose of becoming motivators of farmers in Pelaga Village (Astawa, 2007).  Agro Bagus Pelaga is one of the agrotourism objects developed by a Balinese entrepreneur named Sudibya. The main goal is to supply organic agricultural products like vegetables and fruits such as strawberry and tomato for hotel industries in Bali. Currently, the tourists are attracted by beautiful panorama of mountain, rice fields, and organic farms as the main attractions as an outdoor recreation form. The activities’s outdoor recreation can be packed for harvesting, planting, walking, hiking, bicycling, jogging, running, picnicking, studying and enjoying nature, etc.

 

CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The strengths of landscapes in Bali predominantly are resourced by ecological, social, and cultural resources. The surveyed strength factors used as indicators consist of lakes, rice fields, plantations, forests, rivers, existing farmers, unique traditions, agricultural organizations, events, agricultural ceremonies, organization linkages, human resources, agricultural regulations, information systems, and heritages. More specifically, the stakeholders strongly agree that ecological resource particularly lakes, and social and cultural resources especially existing of farmers and unique traditions as the most strengths factors as means.

There is similar situation on landscapes, both of provinces Drenthe and Bali. In most tourists’ mind, Drenthe is an agricultural province and also Bali. Besides, these places are a very fresh and peaceful place. Tourists come there for outdoor recreation. Except from that, thatese places is also a good places for cultural activities because it has many historical sites, old traditional farm houses, and many other cultural festivals. In conclusion, Drenthe and Bali have the potential for sightseeing tour, camping and cultural tourism.

Both of them, landsacape as outdoor recreation form should be seen as product that will be packaged to visitors or tourists. According to Martin Service businesses have to have a unique characteristic that should be explored and understood when developing a marketing plan and competitive strategy. The four key characteristics of service businesses are: Intangibility, Inseparability, Perishability, and Variability can be aplied both Drenthe and Bali.

1)     Intangibility, most services cannot be experienced or consumed until the purchase is made. Customers can easily end up feeling like they have to make a purchasing decision without satisfactory information. Outdoor Recreation product in Gieten and Bali as intangible products, they sale view of garden, fishing, farmers agricultural activities, that can be consumed in imagine and experience. In other to satisfy tourists’ needs, there must be more maps and brochures at travel agents and the recommendation of the employees to make in invisible thing become visible.

2)     Inseparability, services are unique because they are usually provided and consumed at the same time in the same location (e.g. view of garden or guiding service). Because of the characteristic of inseparability, visitors of Gieten and Bali have strong expectations about how a service will be provided, which can lead to disappointment if their expectations are not met. Therefore, it is better to upgrade the locals and tourism employees of serving customers. Besides, there should be professional organization of tourism in this region. Lateral, there should be more activities and services to reach the diversified needs of tourists.

3)     Perishability:  services, on the other hand, are often perishable, meaning that unused capacity cannot be stored for future use or sale. In this case, visiting of Gieten and Bali might be full in the week end and half empty the others days. Hence, a good marketing strategy is needed to reduce the seasonality in this place and attract more visitors. As a result, it will bring more profit for the locals.

4)     Variability, the quality of a service can vary by many factors, including who provides it, where it is provided, when it is provided, and how it is provided. To due with this issue, the tourism biro here should conduct the survey in order to best understand the tourists needs then have good strategy to attract and serve them.

In the similiar statements,  Kasper (1999) describe service whose buying doesn’t necessarily result in the ownership by meant of physical transfer of the object but still creates benefits during or after a particular interaction and experience. The experience that customer got at the Outdoor recreation in Gieten, and Bali is: Firstly, these City/Villages are a nice place for family recreation. Secondly, those City/Villages provide amenity and infrastructure for outdoor recreation already. They combine the elements of natural beauty, landscape scarcity, and diversity of attractions maybe as caracteristics of both of cases studies. Furthermore, to develop the Gieten, and also Bali as popular landscape for tourism or outdoor recreation place should be better known some factors related with development ethic of tourism such as:

1)     Scarcity: what is the scarcity of Gieten and Bali, in this case the natural landscape and natural activities such as biking, fishing, walking, and etcetera?

2)     What the uniqueness’ factor of Gieten, and Bali as recreation places? In the case the rural culture and agriculture should be promoted well.

3)     Community empowerment, in this case the small ownership of business should be better from the local community such as hotels, restaurant, and etcetera.

And then, marketing techniques to be needed in both Gieten and Bali as an important factor to create market attract new visitors and maintain regular visitors. O’Sullivan and Spangler (1998), in the book, explain about four new p’s as a new dimension the old four p’s. In this business, we can find the four element of the new p’s, as describe as follow:

1)     Parameters of the experience: Tourism and leisure activities especially outdoor recreation in rural areas become paradigm modern society. Refreshing mind and do relaxation from the routine activities becomes a need. There is an increasing steadily with the quantity of the people who saving money to travel around countries for having fun. As a custom, people before decided which place they want to go or what kind of activities they wanted to do, they will prepare for that. In the process of preparation, usually they will search it in the internet, asking for the travel agent and ask their relative for the suggestion. This stage really important in attract the target market. Where, in this stage people would be very exciting to find a new experience. It’s very crucial to give enough information for the target market.

2)     People: The market segmentation is a crucial part in marketing. Every people have a different need, and it’s affect by many factors. According to Sullivan a need of a person affect by four big factors, there are: core, culture, change and choice. Where those factor support the action of a person to decide which part need to take participation. Gieten Village put their attention form the people who has a desire to get a natural experience, and other experience. Their segmentation is student from agriculture and tourism department, employee’s researcher, family and others.

3)     Peripherals: Choosing a location for a tourism destination is not as simple as its look like. The location should be supported for the business activities in many aspects. Especially in tourism business, location has a great influence for the business growth. Tourism business provides a service for the people looking for refreshing, out of the routine activities. Gieten and Bali have criteria as a location to build the destination. Gieten is located nearby popular cities. Some costumers do everything to spent time for refreshing. The combination of beautiful view of the natural garden, lake view and panorama and landscapes, become unforgettable holiday memory in Gieten, and Bali as well. This unforgettable memory wasn’t enough to keep only in mind because the experience can’t be share perfectly with other people.

4)     PerInfoCom: For popularity as a unique landscape especially by outdoor recreation, Gieten, and Bali should receive some suggestions or recommendations to establish their qualities and of course as an added value for their good brand image. All of factors are Televisions, websites, book event, and brochure. It would make a special thought in people mind about Gieten, and Bali as well.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation/Royal Australian Institute of Parks and Recreation. 1980. Recreation Working Paper, Adelaide: ACHPER Publications

Bell and Lisa. 2007, Outdoor Recreation and Nature Tourism: “A European Perspective”  retrive from http://www.livingreviews.org/lrlr-2007-2

Benefits of Outdoor Recreation. 2007. The Queensland Government Retrive from http://www.qorf.org.au/

Butler, R., Hall, C.M., & Jenkins, J. (Eds.). 1998. Tourism and recreation in rural areas. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall, p. 7.

Butler, R.W. .1980. The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution, implications formanagement of resources. Canadian Geographer 24(1): 5

Connell, J. 2003. Managing gardens for visitors in Great Britain: A story of con-tinuity and change. Tourism Management, 26 (2),185 –201.

Cordell, H.K., Betz, C., Bowker, J.M., English, D.B.K., Mou, S.H., Bergstrom, J.C., Teasley, R.J., Tarrant, M.A., Loomis, J. 2005.  Outdoor Recreation in American Life: A National Assessment of Demand and Supply Trends, Champaign, IL (Sagamore Publishing).

Cosgrove, D.E. .1984. Social formation and symbolic landscape.  New Jersey:Barnes & Noble Books.

Fennell, D.A. 2002. A content analysis of ecotourism definitions. Current Is- sues in Tourism,4 (5), 403 – 421.

 

Forman, R. T. T. and M. Godron. 1986. Landscape Ecology. John Wiley, New York. 619 pages.

Goode, P. (1994). Public Park. In G. Jellicoe, S. Jellicoe, P. Goode, & M. Lan-caster (Eds.), The Oxford companion to gardens (pp.456 – 461). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

John Ap. 1986. Recreation trends and implications for government. In R. Castle, D. Lewis & J. Mangan (eds) Work, Leisure and Technology. Melbourne, Longman Cheshire,167-83 ( p. 167).

Kasper, H., Helsdingen, P. van & Vries Jr. W. De. 1999. Service Marketing, An International Perspective, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Kraus, Richard. 1966. Recreation Today: Program Planning and Leadership. Englewood

Maslow, A. 1968. Toward a Psychology of Being. New York: Van Nostrand and Reinhold. 1970 Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row.

O’Sullivan, E. L. & Spangler, K. J. 1998, Experience Marketing – Strategies for the New Millennium, Venture Publishers, Inc. State College, Pennsylvania.

Pearce, D. G. 1996. Tourist organizations in Sweden. Tourism Management, 17(6), 413-424.

Rai Utama, I Gusti Bagus. 2007. Agrotourism as an Alternative form tourism in Bali. CHN Leeuwarden-MA in International Leisure and Tourism Studies, The Netherlands, Thesis.

Rai Utama, I Gusti Bagus., Cecily., Phuong., Susan., and Mayur. 2007. Landscape and Leisure, Outdoor Recreation in Gieten-Drenthe. International Research Project, Master in International Leisure and Tourism Studies, CHN Leeuwarden-MA in International Leisure and Tourism Studies, The Netherlands.

Ryan, C. 1998. “Economic Impacts of Small Events: Estimates and Determinants—A New Zealand Example.” Tourism Economics, 4 (4): 339–52.

Sjerp de Vries (Alterra, Wageningen) & Marije Veer (Stichting Recreatie, The Hague) October, . 2005. COST-action FORREC (E33) Working group 2: Supply, demand and actual usage  – research   (3.1 – 3.5)

Swarbrooke, J. 1996. Understanding the tourists some thoughts on consumer  behavior research on tourism.  Insights (November), A67 – A76.

Swarbrooke, J. 2003. Sustainable tourism management.  New York, CABI.

Trochim, 2006. Social Research, Retrieve 7 May 2007 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/

Vocations in Drenthe, Retrive on 10 June 12, 2007 from http://www.vacations-abroad.com/netherlands/drenthe/gieten/2330/default.aspx

Wall, G. 2000. Centre-periphery. In Jafari, J. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Tourism, London.Routledge: 76.

Williams, D. and Kaltenborn, B. 1995. Leisure places and modernity. The use and meaning of recreational cottages in Norway and the USA. In Crouch, D. (Ed) Leisure and Tourism Geographies: Practices and Geographical Knowledge, London. Routledge: 214-230.


[1] The Study was conducted qualitative research by observation, and desktop research in 2007.

[2] Comparative study with villages in Bali.

[3] Master of Arts program alumni from Professional CHN University, Leeuwarden, Netherlands, in International Leisure and Tourism Studies, (2007)

[4] Case Study was conducted at Gieten Village, Drenthe Province, Netherlands.

[5] Rai Utama, I Gusti Bagus., Cecily., Phuong., Susan., and Mayur. 2007. Landscape and Leisure, Outdoor Recreation in Gieten-Drenthe. International Research Project, Master in International Leisure and Tourism Studies, CHN Leeuwarden-MA in International Leisure and Tourism Studies, The Netherlands.

[6] Rai Utama, I Gusti Bagus. 2007. Agrotourism as an Alternative form tourism in Bali. CHN Leeuwarden-MA in International Leisure and Tourism Studies, The Netherlands, Thesis.

AGROTOURISM AS A FORM OF RURAL-TOURISM IN BALI

AGROTOURISM AS A FORM OF RURAL-TOURISM IN BALI

 

I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama

Student for Tourism Studies in Doctoral Program Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia

igustibagusraiutama@gmail.com

 

Abstract

            This study discusses the agrotourism as a form of rural-tourism development in Bali. This data collected through survey method using questionnaires distributed to 60 respondents from four groups of farmers as samples. This study also used 35 expert respondents who come from each local community, universities, NGOs, and local governments. The data are descriptively and statistically analyses using SWOT analysis. This study finds that (1) the most potential opportunity of agrotourism is increasing family, followed by employee involvement, generating tourism income and increasing value of the village; (2) the hardest barriers of agrotourism development in Bali is inadequate infrastructures, other barriers are limited public facilities, imperfect human resource skills, scarce investments, and insufficient government supports; (3) the ecological resources particularly lakes, social life especially farmers and their lives, and cultural resources such as unique traditions are the strength factors of agrotourism development in Bali; (4) lacks of government support, investment, infrastructures, and human skills are weakness factors; (5) generating related tourism businesses are the most potential opportunity of agrotourism development in Bali. Other opportunities generated from agrotourism are providing local employments, increasing family incomes, and increasing value of the village; (6) degradation of natural resources regarded as the riskiest threat of agrotourism development in Bali. The second most serious matter is land using problems. Other threats are pollutions, host attitude changes, increasing criminalities, and tradition commercializations; (7) agrotourism contributes lots in improving the economy of the local communities. The contributions are on agricultural product improvements and stimulations of related tourism enterprises; (8) agrotourism helps improving the social situations particularly poverty alleviation, decreasing unemployment, and declining urbanization; (9) nature conservation is the greatest contribution toward sustainable tourism development in Bali. Other contributions are visitor increase and generating economic income.    Based on the findings, the recommendations are formulated as follows: (1) promote the uniqueness of each village to strengthen the destination by combining with other related activities to reach the goals of agrotourism. (2) propose agrotourism to the provincial government and national government. (3) develop agrotourism using the local indigenous and uniqueness and apply the principles of sustainable tourism development. (4) Government empowerment, investment in agricultural sectors, infrastructure development, human skill improvement, public facilities development, and local communities’ empowerment and involvement need to be immediately committed to apply an ideal agrotourism in Bali.

 

Keywords: uniqueness, opportunities, barriers, stakeholders, farmers

 

 


Introduction

Tourism has played an important role and essential source of earning. It can be evidently seen that almost all of economic activities in Bali were depended on and leaded by tourism sector. At the same time, new competitors in South East Asia such as Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Philippines confronted Bali. Inauspiciously, global issues like terrorism as Indonesia is predominantly a Moslem country also affected the inconsistency of the tourist arrivals to Bali. The decline occurred in 1998 was caused by economic crisis. Meanwhile the sharp decrease in 2001 to 2003 caused by terrorism issues and by the end of 2005 by disaster issues. Even though, the tourism sector was growing inconsistency but it’s still as important sector in Bali. The development of tourism sector should be continued sustainability because the infrastructures such as international and local hotels, restaurants, travel agencies and others local business were growing in Bali.

According to Pitana (2005), the vision and planning development of tourism in Bali shall be based on Balinese culture, as it is the only island that dominated by Hindus worshipers in Indonesia. Furthermore, Bali has a number of man-made tourism attractions and natural attractions such as lakes, mountains, beaches, and agriculture areas which should be persistently managed. The goal of tourism development in Bali is to realize the sustainability of cultural-based tourism which developed in accordance with Tri Hita Karana concept as well as both the global market competition and improving quality of life of local communities. Tri Hita Karana is the philosophy of Balinese-Hindu which comprises three main elements namely harmonious relationship among the human being, between human and environment, and human, and the Almighty God (WTO, 2005).

One of the visions of tourism development in Bali is to develop rural tourism based on local indigenous. It means whereas the tourism shall be developed in accordance with sustainable development principles by equality of people, profit, and planet. Without sustainable development, tourism will fail definitely to achieve the authentic goal of its development. One of the failure factors of tourism development identified by Subadra (2006) is that tourism is un-ecologically developed. In the similar study by McIntosh, et al. (1984) quoted by Subadra (2006) describes that the development of tourism is not always successful even though developed in an ecotourism model. Yet it sometimes fails to achieve the authentic objective of development since it also causes many negative impacts such as; solid waste generation, habitant disturbance, and forest degradation which is caused by the path erosion. Therefore, tourism may not be overdeveloped and many tourists should not visit rural destinations at the same time. Moreover it sometimes fails to give economic benefits while the local communities do not directly accept the profit generated from tourism development. In many cases, local communities are frequently left out since they normally do not have adequate knowledge, skill, and attitude to involve in tourism. Furthermore, United Nation (UNEP, 2005) mentions that development of tourism should be based on the guidelines of sustainable tourism principles and agrotourism was identified as a tourism development model which is based on environment, nature, and biodiversity. In a similar study conducted by Sudibya (2002) explains whereas the international tourists particularly the educated tourists prefer visiting the destinations which concern much on environment sustainability and nature conservation to destinations which serve modern developments.  While the current situation, the tourism sector in Bali is capitalistically and unequally developed since the development dominated in Southern part of Bali Island only. There is a gap between Northern and Southern part of Bali especially development of tourism sector (Pujaastawa et al, 2005).

 

Significance

The study is aimed at formulating the best strategies to innovate and develop agrotourism in Bali. The strategic to explore the great potencies of agriculture resources in Western, Middle, Eastern, and Northern parts of Bali Island have not been well developed and collaborated with tourism sector.

 

Research Questions  

How could agrotourism contribute innovation to the tourism sector and improve the economic, social, and environmental situations of local communities in Bali?. The questions of this research are formulated as follows: How is the current situation of agrotourism in Bali?, What opportunities are available to develop agrotourism in Bali?, What barriers are found in developing agrotourism in Bali?, What are the tourism stakeholders’ opinions toward agrotourism development in Bali?, How could agrotourism improve of the economy of local communities in Bali?, How could agrotourism improve the social situation of local communities in Bali?, How could agrotourism sustain the tourism development in Bali?

 

Literature Review

According to Jafari and Ritchie (1981), tourism is an interdisciplinary and integrates a variety of subjects, disciplines and focuses and can be seen from numerous points of views and approaches. The tourism as a central study can be studied from many focuses and created into a new form tourism development model, however tourism development model can be made in varying forms such as focus on agriculture as agrotourism, ecology as ecotourism, culture as cultural tourism, religion as religious tourism, etcetera. Furthermore, Wall and Mathieson (1989) quoted by Tjokrowinoto (2002), identifies three elements of tourism system; (1) a dynamic element which involves travel to selected destination; (2) a static element which involves the stay in the destination; and (3) a consequential element resulted from the two preceding elements which is concerned with effects on the economic, physical and social subsystems. Some external variables such as rising earnings, mobility increase, level of education increase, and desire to escape from pressure of day-to-day urban living generate effective demands on tourism which stimulate the rise of various forms of tourisms such as recreational tourism, cultural tourism, health tourism, conference tourism, historical tourism, eco-tourism, etcetera.

In an other term, Becken (2004) identifies several factors affected tourist destination sustainability in New Zealand such as sensitivity and capacity of environment, accessibility and supporting tourist infrastructure, existence of a cluster of attractions, and community attitude, support and participation in tourism development.  A similar research conducted by Syamsu, et al (2001) which took a case study in agrotourism object which grow salak pondoh located in Sleman, Yogyakarta- Indonesia identified many factors related to sustainability of the destination such as scarcity, uniqueness, nature, improving host community, as well as equality between stakeholders. Furthermore, these factors turn into more important things to apply the tourism destination sustainability.  According to WTO (2005), sustainability as a concept involves a number of perspectives comprises environmental, ecological, social, cultural, and economic issues. Furthermore, according to UNEP (2003) to apply the sustainable tourism development, the strategies should be based on a formal expression of principles for sustainable tourism. Moreover, the guidelines, techniques and principles are presented important for national governments, destinations and organizations which wish to be guided by the ethics of sustainable and responsible tourism. The guidelines and principles include: community participation, stakeholder involvement, local ownership, establishment of local business linkages, sustainability of the resource base, community goals, cooperation between local attractions, businesses and tourism operators, carrying capacity, monitoring and evaluating, accountability, establishment of education and training programmes, and positioning.

In the context of rural, rural tourism is a complex multi-faceted activities as Lane (1994) explains which quoted by Page and Getz (1997), it is not only farm-based tourism but also comprises special interest nature holiday and ecotourism, walking, climbing and riding holidays, adventure, sport and health tourism, hunting and angling, educational tourism, art and heritage tourism, and in some areas, ethnic tourism.  In addition, Page and Getz (1997) explain that rural tourism should be based on rural areas, small scale enterprise, open space, contact with nature, traditional, long-term good of the area development, and representing the complex pattern of rural environment, economy, history and location. While, UNDP (2005) interprets that rural tourism is any form of tourism that showcases the rural life, art, culture and heritage in a rural location, thereby benefiting the local community economically and socially as well as enabling interaction between the tourists and the locals for a more educational tourism experience which can be termed as rural tourism with essentially any activity which takes place in the countryside.  Nevertheless the future perspective of recreation and tourism in rural areas really depend on the successful integration among the traditional and the new forms of leisure and the traditional and new forms of other economic activities in these areas. The stakeholders involvements are highly required to assure the recreation and tourism in rural areas are sustainable and meet the future directions of tourism development.

One of the rural-tourism is agrotourism. Agrotourism is collaborations between tourism and agriculture because the visitor go to travelling as tourist to enjoy, relaxation, spend time and money for enjoyable and happiness in addition to visiting agricultural area, doing activities related agricultural such as harvest, planting, fishing, etc (http://www.farmstop.com). Reynolds (2005) mentions that agrotourism is businesses conducted by farmers whose working agricultural operations for the enjoyment and education of visitors. In extensions meaning, agrotourism presents the potential generating farm revenues and increasing profitability. Additionally, visitors of agrotourism contact directly with farmers and support the increase of agriculture products indirectly. Furthermore, according to WTO (2005), that agrotourism is part of rural tourism and relates to tourism on farms. It gives farmers options to expand their activities and receive more income. Agrotourism is a small part of rural tourism and agricultural practice worldwide, excluding in some European countries such as Austria, France, Italy and Switzerland, the number of farms that offer some form of tourism is remarkably large. In some areas and countries, agrotourism forms a large part of rural tourism as a whole.

The philosophy of agrotourism is inspired to improve the farmers’ earnings and the quality of rural society lives which then expectedly represents opportunity to educate the societies on agriculture and ecosystems. Related and similar opinions described by Lobo, et al (1999), whereas the development of agrotourisms will offer opportunities for local farmers to increase their earnings and improve their lives as well as sustain their operations. The opinions can be detailed as such: (1) it educates people or society about agriculture and contribute to local economic, (2) it decrease the flood of urbanization as people are able to get jobs and earnings from agrotourism, (3) it promotes local products, and regional in marketing effort and create value added and direct-marketing and stimulate economic activity as well as give benefit to society where agrotourism developed. Rilla (1999) describes more clearly the reasons of developing agrotourism as such; (1) it educates for the purpose of keeping the relationship among local societies, interest sectors, and visitors. (2) it improves the health and freshness of visitors, (3) relaxation, (4) adventure, (5) natural food or food organic, (6) unique experiences, (7) cheap tourism.

The philosophy of Hindu called Tri Hita Karana which mainly consists of three principles of harmonic relationship among human and being, humans and the environment, and humans and God has been used as a fundamental concept in all developments in Bali. Agrotourism is identified and considered to relate and be relevant with this philosophy, represent one of the traditional values and cultures to pay attention on environment sustainability (Pujaastawa et al, 2005). Additionally, Pujaastawa et al,  (2005) lists three fundamentals of Tri Hita Karana concept namely; parahyangan (spiritual environment), pawongan (social environment), and palemahan (nature environment).  As agrotourism has been identified as a tourism development model which is based on the principles of sustainable development, therefore agrotourism is prospective to be developed in Bali Island for the purpose of improving motivations of working by spirit “parahyangan”, increasing local earnings “pawongan”, and conserving the nature “palemahan”.

The literatures review conclude that agrotourism is the best form of rural tourism in Bali based on the relevancy of the philosophy of Hindu is predominantly of religion in Bali. Agrourism also is stated as the form of tourism related to the principles of sustainability development.

 

Conceptual Framework  

Tourism sector has been developed by interactions and interconnections among linkage sectors. In the context of tourism destination as a product, it follows product lifecycle. It interacts between demand and supply dynamically. Innovations and creativities should be done to sustain the tourism development in Bali. The demand and supply should be identified and known by those who intend to develop tourism as well as agrotourism. The opportunity of agrotourism can be predicted by demand and supply. The demand is needed to identify the chances of agrotourism as tourism product from the consumer side and the supply is an important thing to identify of opportunities to develop agrotourism especially to host communities, providers, and government as policy maker. This study will assemble the opportunities and chances of agrotourism in Bali as an alternative form of tourism. Information and opinions of stakeholders (farmers, government, tourism industries, NGOs, Universities, and visitors), will be analysed and formulated using SWOT analysis. Finally, the finding of this study will be used as a recommendation and strategy to develop agrotourism in Bali.

 

 

 

Figure 1 Research Conceptual Frameworks

 

Methodology

The case study is used, and this research will be focused in Bali Province since it is presently used as the icon of tourism in Indonesia.  The villages are collected as case studies of agrotourism in Bali, they are: Bayung Gede Village, Kintamani District in Bangli Regency, Candikuning Village, Baturiti District in Tabanan Regency, Blimbingsari Village, Melaya District in Jembrana Regency, and Pelaga Village, Petang District in Badung Regency.

This research uses qualitative approach which involves some library researches and observation. Qualitative method according to Veal (1997), refers to the methods and techniques which describe and emphasize more on qualitative rather that quantitative information.  This research is designed using qualitative descriptive research methods.

The data used to answer the problem statement and research questions are collected through: direct observation, and structured interview (questioner and open questions). This study uses SWOT survey and combined with qualitative and quantitative data which analysed and focused on the following key areas: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. The collected data are descriptively analysed using software Microsoft Excel 2003 to determine the means, scores, and ranks of the internal factors (strengths and weaknesses), and to determine the external factors (threats and opportunities) of agrotourism as an alternative form of tourism development in Bali. While the data from direct observation used as primary data to compare opinions and factual described into check list tables, chart, photos, and pictures.

 

Results and Discussion

 

  1. 1.     Bayung Gede Village, Kintamani District-Bangli Regency

Bayung Gede is the first village surveyed to collect information relate to rural and agrotourism. It is a rural tourism projected by Government of Bali Regency located nearby the eco-tourism Kintamani which famous for beautiful sceneries of Batur Lake and active volcano Mount Batur. The main tourist attraction offered at Bayung Gede Village is “Kuburan Ari-ari” (placenta grave). The local communities of Bayung Gede Village believe it as spiritual of inhabitants of familiarity. The district government of Bangli sees the potency and develop it become tourism object which added with some creations and innovations to enrich alternative tourist attractions in Bali.  In addition, Bayung Gede Village also has other potencies such as orange farms and the beautiful panorama that developed as agrotourism. Besides, lush vegetables grow in this village. Oranges and vegetables are currently produced to supply local markets in Bali Province. Tourists who visit Bayung Gede Village are dominantly still attracted by the unique of “Kuburan Ari-ari” although the village has lots potencies on agricultural resources.

 

  1. 2.     Candikuning Village, Baturiti District-Tabanan Regency

Candikuning Village is a project which was initiated by the district government of Baturiti, Tabanan Regency. Following the success story of Bedugul “Beratan Lake” and “Ulun Danu Temple” and the botanical garden of Kebun Raya Bali the village is surveyed and promoted as agrotourism in Bali.  The Eka Karya Botanical Garden is one of the leading tourist attractions in Tabanan Regency contributes lots to the local communities and stimulates related businesses such as flower “krisan” shops, vegetable traditional market, fruit “strawberry”, and organic plantations.

 

  1. 3.     Blimbingsari Village, Melaya District, Jembrana Regency

Blimbingsari is a small village of approximately 200 couple families, located in western part of Bali Province approximately 120 km from the Capital City of Denpasar. The village was formed and developed once the Dutch colonized Indonesia. It is predominantly populated by Christian Protestant communities. Albeit it becomes a Christian village, Blimbingsari still exists in Balinese culture and tradition practices.  Predominantly, the populations work for agricultural sector. The cacao and coconut farms are the main products of Blimbingsari Village. The opportunity of Blimbingsari to become an agricultural attraction was motivated by “Suyaga Ayub”, a pastor of Blimbingsari church. Dominantly, tourists attracted by the unique traditions of Christian communities which are implemented by Balinese-style church, and its story becomes one of the Christian villages in Bali. The village is also nearby Palasari Village with Catholics populations, moreover it is both close to West Bali National Park which functions as ecotourism and conservation and Palasari water irrigation (DAM) which have been developed and promoted by the local government as tourist destination in Bali.

 

 

  1. 4.     Pelaga Village, Petang District, Badung Regency

Pelaga is a small town in the middle part of Bali. It is surrounded by mountains and forests. The agrotourism at Pelaga is motivated by private entrepreneurs for the purpose of becoming motivators of farmers in Pelaga Village (Astawa, 2007).  Agro Bagus Pelaga is one of the agrotourism objects developed by a Balinese entrepreneur named Sudibya. The main goal is to supply organic agricultural products like vegetables and fruits such as strawberry and tomato for hotel industries in Bali. Currently, the tourists are attracted by beautiful panorama of mountain, rice fields, and organic farms as the main attractions.

 

  1. 5.     Stakeholders’ Opinions toward Agrotourism Development in Bali.

Using SWOT Analysis, this paper attracts research finding by strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and treats factors in each case study before formulating the best strategy to develop agrotourism in Bali. The data collected through interview involving 35 respondents which comprise stakeholders from four local governments of Bayung Gede, Candikuning, Blimbingsari, and Pelaga Villages; and representative respondents from NGOs, universities, and hotelier (see appendix). The research finding can be described as below:

 

(1). Strengths

The strengths of agrotourism development in Bali predominantly are resourced by ecological, social, and cultural resources. The surveyed strength factors used as indicators consist of lakes, rice fields, plantations, forests, rivers, existing farmers, unique traditions, agricultural organizations, events, agricultural ceremonies, organization linkages, human resources, agricultural regulations, information systems, and heritages. In general, the respondents who represent agrotourism stakeholders predominantly agree that ecological, and social and cultural resources are the strengths factors agrotourism development in Bali. More specifically, the stakeholders strongly agree that ecological resource particularly lakes, and social and cultural resources especially existing of farmers and unique traditions as the most strengths factors as means.

 

(2). Weaknesses

Although the stakeholders agree that Bali has lots of strength factors to develop agrotourism, however the weaknesses factors also should be considered. The weakness factors comprise; lack of government support, lack of investment, lack of infrastructures, lack of human skills, and lack of public facilities. According to the stakeholders selected as respondents whereas the most weakness factor contributed to agrotorism development in Bali is lack of government support which its mean accounts for 3.89. Besides, lacks of investment and infrastructures as well as limited human skills are still regarded as the weaknesses factors. Yet public facilities are not supposed to be the weakness factors since its mean only reaches 2.86 and position on the last rank.

 

(3). Opportunities

The stakeholders predominantly agree that the agrotourism development in Bali generates certain opportunities such as; creating local employment, increasing family income, and increasing value of the village. In particular, generating related tourism business opportunities become the primary and most reasons (mean of 4.46) proposed by the respondents.

 

(4). Threats

Basically threats toward agrotourism development are classified into two namely ecological threats which comprise degradation of natural resources, lands using problems, and pollutions; and social and cultural threats which comprise changing of hosts’ attitudes, increasing criminalities, and commercialization of traditions. The agrotourism stakeholders in Bali strongly agree that degradation of natural resources the most dangerous threat of any tourism developments including agrotourism in particular. It is clearly described by the mean of 4.51. Land using problems are supposed to be the second most risky hazard which potential to destroy the existence and development of agrotourism in Bali. Meanwhile the last four indicators pollutions, changing of hosts’ attitudes, increasing criminalities, commercialization of tradition are consider to be the threats factors, yet they are not as significant as the two exposure factors as degradation of natural resource and land using problem.

 

Implications 

Agrotourism contributes lots to the improvement of economy lives of the local communities. The contributions are in the forms of agricultural products sales, various of hand-made souvenirs or handicrafts sold for the tourists, chances to establish food stalls or restaurants and certain types of accommodation such as home-stay, bungalow, villa, and hotel, as well as village development. With respect to economy improvement, the stakeholders predominantly agree that increasing agricultural products are the most contribution generated from agrotourism development with mean of 3.97. There are three indicators which empower the potency of agrotourism development such as poverty alleviation, decreasing the number of unemployment, and declining the urban. The stakeholders mostly agree that the agrotourism enables to alleviate poverties and decrease the unemployment since it provides work opportunities which can help to improve the quality of the villagers’ lives. These two contributions are considered to be the most essential contributions of agrotourism development in Bali.

Agrotourism development is highly expected to play role in applying sustainable tourism development in Bali. Stakeholders predominantly agree that the agrotourism development contributes toward nature conservation as one of the important goals of sustainable tourism (sustaining nature, social life, and culture, as well as generating income for the local societies). Nowadays, tourists are more interested in visiting tourism destinations which serve natural attractions since their lives and educations improving day by day which encourage them to pay more attention nature and increase their awareness on the importance of saving the nature. This newly paradigm is expected to increase the number of tourists visiting Bali. The stakeholders also agree that agrotourism facilitates the local communities to run certain kinds of related tourism businesses in their villages.

 

Recommendations 

The ecological resources such as lakes, rice fields, plantations and farms as well as forests; the social and cultural resources such as existing farmers, unique traditions, agricultural organizations, events, agricultural ceremonies, organizations linkages, human resources, agriculture regulations, information systems, heritages should be well developed, and promoted since these strength factors are able to generate potencies for other tourism business establishments, employment opportunities, enhance the family income and value of the village. The uniqueness of each village should be well promoted and described to position strong images of the villages, indeed to combine agrotourism with the local indigenous and uniqueness.

The main attractions of Bayung Gede Village are “Kuburan Ari-ari” (placenta grave) which used as the icon of the village and orange farm shall be used as the icon of agricultural products. The foremost attractions of Candikuning Village are organic farm and beautiful panorama of Beratan Lake and Eka Karya Bali Botanical Garden. They should be promoted as the icon of agrotourism of this village. The primary attractions of Blimbingsari Village are the unique tradition of Christian communities; Balinese-style church, and story of the village becoming a Christian village in Bali should be promoted as icon of pluralism and harmonic situation in Bali. Meanwhile the coconut and cacao farms should be used as the icon of agricultural products of this village. The core attractions offered at Pelaga Village are beautiful panorama of mountain, rice fields, and organic farms. They are used as the icon of the village. The programs which should be formulated such as entire cooperation with tourism operators, packaging events in the village, and provide village information system.

 

Bibliography

 

About Agritourism Retrieve 12 November 2006 from http://www.farmstop.com/aboutagritourism.asp

 

Agenda 21. (2006) The Travel Tourism Industry; towards Environmentally Sustainable Development, WTTC, WTO, The Earth Council.

 

Bali Tourism Board. (2006). Official website of the Bali Tourism Board ,Denpasar, Retrieve 22nd  May 2007 from  http://www.bali-tourism-board.com

 

Becken, S. (2004). How tourists and tourism experts perceive climate change and forest carbon sinks. Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

 

Butler, Richard, and Hall, C. Michael. (2003). Tourism and Recreation in Rural Areas. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

 

Dalem, A. A. G. R. (1999). Birds as a potential tourist attraction at Nusa Dua lagoon, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia. A preliminary study. pp. 159–172. Proceedings of the International Seminar of Sustainable Tourism: The Balinese Perspective in Denpasar, Bali.

 

Eadington, W.R. and Smith, V.L. (1995) Introduction: The emergence of alternative forms of tourism. In V.L. Smith and W.R. Eadington (eds) Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the Development of Tourism (pp. 1–12). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

 

Gilbert, A.J. (1990). Natural Resource Accounts in drylands management. In Dixon, J.A., D.E. James and P.B. Sherman. Dryland Management: economic case studies.

Indonesian Agricultural Department. (2002). Warta Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian Vol.24 No.1, 2002, Retrieve 12 November 2006 from  http://www.pustaka-deptan.go.id/publ/warta/w2419.htm

Jafari, J and Ritchie, J. (1981). Towards a framework for tourism education. Annals of Tourism Research.

 

Jamieson, W. and Noble, A. (2000). A Manual for Community Tourism Destination Management. Canadian Universities Consortium Urban Environmental Management Project Training and Technology Transfer Program, Ca Lindberg, K. 1996. The Economic Impacts of Ecotourism. Retrive 12 November 2006 from http://ecotour.csu.edu.au/ecotour/mar1.htm

 

Lane. (1994). Tourism Management: Profiling segments of tourists in rural areas, needs and wants. Department of Quantitative Methods for the Economy, University of Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

 

Lobo, R.E., Goldman G.E. (1999). Agricultural Tourism: Agritourism Benefits Agriculture in San Diego County, California Agriculture, and University of California.

 

McIntosh and Goeldner. (1990). Tourism. Principles, Practices, and Philosophies (sixth ed.), Grid Publishing, Columbus.

 

OTA. (1992). Southeastern Rural Mental Health Research Center, University of Virginia, Madison House, 170 Rugby Road, 22903 Charlottesville, Virginia

 

Page, J. Stephen and Getz, Don. (1997). The business of Rural Tourism: international perspective. London: International Thomson Business Press.

 

Pitana, I Gede. (2005). Sosiologi Pariwisata, Kajian sosiologis terhadap struktur, sistem, dan dampak-dampak pariwisata. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset.

 

Postma, Albert. (2002) An Approach for integrated development of quality tourism. In Flanagan, S., Ruddy, J., Andrews, N. (2002) Innovation tourism planning. Dublin: Dublin Institute of Technology: Sage.

 

Primack, R. B. J., Supriatna, M., Indrawan, and Kramadibrata, P. (1998). Biologi Konservasi. 345pp. Yayasan Obor Indonesia: Jakarta.

 

Pujaastawa, IBG., Wirawan, IGP., Andika, IM. (2005). Pariwisata Terpadu: Alternatif Model Pengembangan Pariwisata Bali Tengah. Denpasar: Udayana University. (”Alternative Tourism Development for Middle part of Bali).

 

Reynolds. (2005). Consumer demand for. agricultural and on-farm nature tourism. Davis, CA: University of California.

 

Rilla, E. (1999). Bring the City & County Together. California Coast and Ocean. Vol. 15, No. 2. 10p.

 

Schurink, Harrie, J., A. (2000). Agricultural tourism in Indonesia: Development of agricultural tourism in Central Java and Bali and the role of the government in this development.Leeuwarden:Dissertation Master of Arts International Leisure and Tourism Studies.

 

Spillane, James.(1994). Ekonomi Pariwisata, Sejarah dan prospeknya.Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

 

Subadra, I Nengah. (2006). Is Ecotourism Ecologically Developed?. Retrieve 7 June 2007 from http://subadra.wordpress.com

 

Sudibya, Bagus. (2002). “Pengembangan Ecotourism di Bali: Kasus Bagus Discovery Group”. Makalah disampaikan pada Ceramah Ecotourism di Kampus STIM-PPLP Dhyana Pura, Dalung, Kuta pada tanggal 14 Agustus 2002.

 

Syamsu, Yoharman. (2001). Penerapan Etika Perencanaan Pada Kawasan Wisata: Studi Kasus Kawasan Agrowisata Salak Pondoh, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Jakarta. Research Center Tri Sakti Tourism College.

 

Tambunan, Tulus. (2006). Long term trends in the industrial and economic growth in Indonesia, Center for Industry and SME Studies, Faculty of Economics, University of Trisakti Indonesia.

 

Tjokrowinoto. (2002). Tourism Information System of Indonesia. Yogjakarta, Gajah Mada University

 

Trochim, (2006). Social Research, Retrieve 7 May 2007 from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/

 

UNDP.(2005). The crisis in Bali’s tourism sector, The objectives of the UNDP Bali Crisis Recovery programme. Retrieve 22nd July 2007 from http://www.undp.or.id/programme/conflict/bali_crisis.asp

 

UNEP. (2003). UNEP publications that provide information on the tourism industry,  Agenda 21- The Role of Local Authorities in Sustainable Tourism. Retrieve 12th May 2007 from http://www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/library/home.htm

 

Veal, A.J., (1997). Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism: a Practical Guide. London: Pitman.

 

Veer , Marije., and  Tuunter, Erik. (2005). Rural tourism in Europe: An exploration of success and failure factors. Raamweg: Stichting Recreatie, Expert and Innovation Centre

 

WTO. 2005. World Tourism Organization. (2003).Tourism Trends. Madrid.

PENGEMBANGAN WISATA KOTA SEBAGAI PARIWISATA MASA DEPAN INDONESIA

PENGEMBANGAN WISATA KOTA SEBAGAI PARIWISATA MASA DEPAN INDONESIA

 

Oleh

I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama

Email: igustibagusraiutama@gmail.com

 

Universitas Dhyana Pura, Badung-Bali

 http://www.academia.edu/4226025/PENGEMBANGAN_WISATA_KOTA_SEBAGAI_PARIWISATA_MASA_DEPAN_INDONESIA_Oleh_I_Gusti_Bagus_Rai_Utama

ABSTRAK

Mengembangkan pariwisata di perkotaan adalah usaha untuk meningkatkan pendapatan asli daerah melalui pajak hotel dan restoran, dan sekaligus meningkatkan aktivitas ekonomi di perkotaan. Pengembangan pariwisata apapun jenis dan namanya memerlukan fungsi pengelolaan yang kreatif dan inovatif berdasarkan atas perencanaan yang matang, pelaksanaan yang konsisten, dan evaluasi yang terukur dan konstruktif. Pembangunan wisata kota adalah pembangunan yang terintegrasi dan holistik yang akan mewujudkan kepuasan semua pihak. Perlunya integrasi aspek-aspek terkait yang terdiri dari: (1)Aspek daya tarik destinasi; merupakan atribut daerah tujuan wisata yang berupa apasaja yang dapat menarik  wisatawan dan setiap destinasi pasti memiliki daya tarik, baik daya tarik berupa alam maupun masyarakat dan budayanya. (2)Aspek transportasi atau sering disebut aksesibilitas; merupakan atribut akses bagi wisatawan domestik dan mancanegara agar dengan mudah dapat mencapai tujuan ke tempat wisata baik secara internatsional maupun akses terhadap tempat-tempat wisata pada sebuah destinasi. (3)Aspek fasilitas utama dan pendukung; merupakan atribut amenitas yang menjadi salah satu syarat daerah tujuan wisata agar wisatawan dapat dengan kerasan tinggal lebih lama pada sebuah destinasi. (4)Aspek kelembagaan; atribut sumberdaya manusia, sistem, dan kelembagaannya berupa lembaga pariwisata yang akan mendukung sebuah destinasi layak untuk dikunjungi, aspek kelembagaan tersebut dapat berupa dukungan lembaga keamanan, lembaga pariwisata sebagai pengelola destinasi, dan lembaga pendukung lainnya yang dapat menciptakan kenyamanan wisatawan. Kota sebagai pusat bisnis merupakan centrum dari akvitas malam para wisatawan baik wisatawan domestik maupun mancanegara. Sehingga perlu pengelolaan dan penataan. (1) Penataan Sentra bisnis masyarakat lokal yang mestinya dapat digalakkan adalah sebagai berikut: Pasar Malam tradisional yang menjual segala bentuk cinderamata khas sebuah kota, makanan tradisional, pagelaran seni tari tradisional, Spa terapi, fisioterapi untuk penghilang lelah para wisatawan sehabis tour. (2) Penataan penginapan, hotel, dan sejenisnya mestinya dapat diarahkan pada pada area sub urban atau pinggiran kota untuk mengurangi kekroditan kota. (3) Penataan daerah atraksi wisata baik yang given/alamiah maupun man-made/buatan dapat diarahkan pada kawasan rural atau countryside.

 

Kata Kunci: wisata kota, wisatawan, aktivitas, atribut wisata

 

 

  1. 1.      PENDAHULUAN

Pengembangan Kota Wisata akan menjadi propek yang menjanjikan dimasa yang akan datang untuk dikembangkan di Indonesia dengan berbagai alasan yang rasional dan dapat dipertanggungjawabkan baik secara ilmiah maupun non ilmiah. Kecenderungan bahwa kota cenderung menjadi pusat perhatian pembangunan termasuk juga pembangunan sektor pariwisata. Kecenderungan tersebut dilatarbelakangi oleh  faktor sosial demografi penduduk kota jauh lebih mudah menerima isu-isu terkini yang terkait modernisasi dan pemberdayaan ekonomi karena memang kaum terpelajar lebih  dominan berada di daerah perkotaan. Sementara jika dilihat dari trend pertumbuhan wilayah, ada kecenderungan jumlah kota semakin meningkat dari masa ke masa, namun perdesaan semakin menyempit karena arus modernisasi dan konversi perdesaan menjadi daerah perkotaan baru.

Laporan dari The Comparative Urban Studies Project di Woldrow Wilson tahun 2006 menjelaskan bahwa telah terjadi pertumbuhan penduduk perkotaan di dunia dengan sangat berarti sejak tahun 2000an, yakni  41% dari penduduk dunia tinggal di perkotaan, dan pada tahun 2005 meningkat menjadi 50% penduduk dunia tinggal di perkotaan. Laporan terakhir dari World Bank menjelaskan bahwa perkembangan jumlah penduduk perkotaan relatif tinggi, dan bahkan diprediksi pada tahun 2050, terdapat 85% penduduk dunia akan hidup di daerah perkotaan.

Jika di lihat kondisi di Indonesia, pada tahun 1980 persentase jumlah penduduk kota di Indonesia adalah 27,29% dari jumlah penduduk seluruh Indonesia. Pada tahun 1990 persentase tersebut bertambah menjadi 30,93%. Diperkirakan pada tahun 2020 persentase jurnlah penduduk kota di Indonesia mencapai 50% dari jumlah penduduk seluruh Indonesia (Nawir, 2008).  Persentase kecenderungan bertambahnya wilayah dan jumlah kota adalah prediksi yang sangat menarik bagi pengembangan wisata kota di Indonesia. Berdasarkan data Badan Pusat Statistik 2011, jumlah penduduk Indonesia 2010 usia muda lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan usia tua. Jumlah anak kelompok usia 0-9 tahun sebanyak 45,93 juta, sedangkan anak usia 10-19 tahun berjumlah 43,55 juta jiwa. Artinya perencanaan  wisata kota Indonesia adalah persembahan untuk generasi di masa mendatang yang mestinya sudah direncanakan mulai saat ini untuk meminimalkan dampak negatif di masa mendatang. Dari paparan empiris tersebut di atas, pengembangan wisata kota nyaris di seluruh dunia akan menjadi trend yang relatif penting untuk direncanakan dalam tujuan pemberdayaan masyarakat.

 

 

  1. 2.      TINJAUAN UMUM KONSEP  WISATA KOTA

 

2.1  Kota dan Sumberdaya

Beberapa unsur  pendukung  pariwisata justru lebih tersedia jika dibandingkan dengan unsur pendukung pariwisata di perdesaan, misalnya unsur aksesibiltas, di mana bandara, infrastruktur jalan raya, fasilitas publik lebih banyak temukan lebih baik daripada daerah perdesaan. Sementara jika dilihat dari unsur atraksi atau daya tarik, hampir sebagaian besar objek dan atraksi wisata berada di daerah perkotaan. Lalu jika dilihat dari unsur amenitas, sangat jarang seorang pebisnis atau investor mau membangun hotel atau restoran di daerrah perdesaan. Dan pada akhirnya jika dilihat dari unsur ensileri atau kelembagaan kepariwisataan, nyaris sebagaian besar berpusat di daerah perkotaan.

Berikut Sumberdaya yang melekat pada sebuah kota yang dapat dikemas menjadi daya tarik wisata, yakni: (1) Balai Kota: hampir setiap kota memiliki Balai Kota yang sengaja dibangun untuk di gunakan sebagai jantung pemerintahan kota. Bangunan ini biasanya dibangun dengan arsitektur yang sangat indahnya dan memiliki karakteristik tertentu sesuai ciri khas sebuah kota. (2) Kawasan Jalan tertentu yang biasanya memiliki mitologi tertentu seperti horor, nostalgia, historis, heroik, dan sebagainya yang biasanya melekat dan menjadi ciri khas tersendiri bagi setiap kota. (3) Monumen Kota, yang memiliki pesan edukasi historis atau sosial atau religius yang biasanya juga dimiliki oleh kota-kota di Indonesia. (4) Kuliner juga menjadi daya tarik tersendiri yang dapat dikemas oleh setiap kota di Indoonesia untuk menjadi daya tarik wisata yang menarik. (5) Kampus atau Universitas yang memang dirancang dan citrakan sebagai aset kota yang dapat dijadikan daya tarik wisata edukasi, dan ciri ini juga dimiliki hampir sebagian besar kota-kota di Indonesia. (6) Mall atau Pusat perbelanjaan atau Pasar Tradisional juga menjadi ciri khas bagi setiap kota dan akan menjadi daya tarik yang amat penting untuk dikemas menjadi daya tarik wisata kota. (7) Alun-alun dan Taman Kota adalah ruang terbuka yang biasanya menjadi daya tarik wisata kota dan juga melekat pada identitas sebuah kota. (8) Museum Kota juga dimiliki sebagian besar kota-kota didunia yang biasanya dikelola sebagai bagian dari wujud pelestarian terhadap benda-benda purbakala warisan sebuah kota yang mungkin bernilai mitos, atau warisan budaya. (9) Pasar Malam juga menjadi ciri khas sebuah kota dan pasar malam merupakan denyut jantung perekonomian sebuah kota, dan jika dapat dikelola secara profesional akan dapat menjadi daya tarik wisata kota. Dan banyak lagi potensi daya tarik wisata kota yang dapat dikembangkan seperti misalnya taman rekreasi dan sebagainya mengikuti kreatifitas dan daya inovasi pemerintah kota setempat.

Pengembangan Wisata Kota akan menjadi trend menarik dimasa depan berdasarkan banyak alasan yang rasional, namun demikian potensi yang bagus akan lebih berhasil jika dapat dikembangkan dan dikelola dengan manajemen kota yang terintegrasi dalam konsep totalitas produk  wisata yang saling terkait dengan yang lainnya. Minimal ada empat unsur yang harus diintegrasikan yakni unsur atraksi atau daya tarik wisata, unsur amenitas atau infrastruktur dan fasilitas pendukung, unsur aksesibilitas berupa publik transportasi yang baik, manajemen transportasi yang efesien dan efektif. Dan integrasi yang tidak kalah pentingnya adalah unsur ensileri yang merupakan softkills dari totalitas produk wisata kota sebagai pengendali, pengeoperasi, dan evaluator yang menerapkan etika pembangunan yang berkelanjutan. Unsur ensilari dapat dibentuk dalam sebuah badan khusus atau komite atau apalah namanya yang penting ada yang merencanakan, ada yang menjalankan, dan harus ada yang mengontrolnya agar apa yang diharapkan dari pengembangan wisata kota dapat berhasil dan bijak dalam pengelolaannya.

 

2.2  Motivasi Berwisata

Kata motivasi berasal dari kata ”motive” yang berarti menyebabkan seseorang  melakukan sesuatu dengan cara tertentu; atau merangsang keinginan. Lebih jauh, Abraham Maslow membuat model hierarki motivasi yang lebih dikenal dengan teori Motivasi Maslow.  Teori Maslow pada awalnya merupakan teori dasar psikologi yang mengasumsikan bahwa orang akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhan pokok terlebih dahulu, secara fisiologis sebelum mengarahkan perilaku memenuhi kebutuhan yang lebih tinggi berupa perwujudan diri. Kebutuhan yang lebih rendah harus dipenuhi terlebih dahulu sebelum kebutuhan yang lebih tinggi seperti perwujudan diri mulai mengembalikan perilaku seseorang. Apabila seseorang memutuskan bahwa ia menerima uang yang cukup untuk pekerjaan dari organisasi tempat ia bekerja, maka uang tidak mempunyai daya intensitasnya lagi. Jika suatu kebutuhan mencapai puncaknya, kebutuhan itu akan berhenti menjadi motivasi utama dari perilaku. Kemudian kebutuhan kedua mendominasi, tetapi walaupun kebutuhan telah terpuaskan, kebutuhan itu masih mempengaruhi perilaku hanya intensitasnya yang lebih kecil.

Dalam hubungannya dengan pariwisata, McIntosh dan Goeldner (dalam Pitana dan Gayatri, 2005:52) membedakan motivasi wisatawan menjadi empat kategori motivasi, yaitu:

1)        Motivasi fisik, yaitu motivasi yang berkaitan dengan aktifitas fisik, misalnya olah raga, rekreasi pantai, hiburan yang menyegarkan, dan motivasi lainnya yang secara langsung berhubungan dengan kesehatan.

2)        Motivasi budaya, yaitu motivasi yang dapat diidentifikasikan melalui hasrat untuk mengetahui tentang suatu daerah, musik, seni, cerita rakyat, tarian, lukisan, maupun agama mereka.

3)        Motivasi interpersonal, motivasi yang berkaitan dengan hasrat untuk menemui orang baru, mengunjungi teman atau keluarga, menjauhkan diri dari rutinitas atau mencari pengalaman baru yang berbeda.

4)        Motivasi prestise dan status, yaitu motivasi yang berkaitan dengan kebutuhan ego dan pengembangan pribadi, misalnya perjalanan untuk bisnis konvensi, studi, dan yang berkaitan dengan hobi dan pendidikan. Keinginan atas penghargaan perhatian, pengetahuan dan reputasi yang baik dapat dipenuhi selama perjalanan.

Pada umumnya manusia menginginkan adanya keseimbangan dalam hidupnya. Secara psikologis, dapat dijelaskan bahwa kebutuhan manusia terhadap keseimbangan dalam kehidupannya tercermin pada usaha menyeimbangkan, misalnya antara kerja dan istirahat, melek dan tidur, bergerak dan santai, pendapatan dan pengeluaran, kerja dan keluarga, kebebasan dan ketergantungan, kebutuhan sosial, maupun resiko dan keamanan,  Manusia cenderung ingin meninggalkan rutinitas disela-sela kehidupannya dengan melakukan perjalanan wisata  untuk menyegarkan tubuh dan jiwa, memberikan vitalitas, dan memberikan arti baru pada kehidupan (Krippendorf, 1987:47). Berdasarkan teori Maslow, perjalanan wisata dapat dimotivasi oleh motif untuk meningkatkan kesehatan seperti wellness tourism, medical tourism, dan sejenisnya. Perjalanan wisata juga dapat digerakkan oleh kebutuhan fisiologis, kebutuhan rasa aman, kebutuhan penghargaan, hingga kebutuhan aktualisasi diri. Menurut Huang dan Hsu (2008: 267-287), melihat  ada kebutuhan manusia belum termasuk dalam lima hirarki tersebut yakni kebutuhan berkesenian, kebutuhan keingintahuan, dan kebutuhan untuk dimengerti oleh sesama manusia, padahal dalam konteks perjalanan wisata, kebutuhan tersebut besar pengaruhnya terhadap keputusan seseorang untuk melakukan perjalanan wisata.

Keputusan seseorang untuk melakukan perjalanan wisata dipengaruhi oleh kuatnya faktor-faktor pendorong (push factor) dan faktor-faktor penarik (pull factor). Faktor pendorong dan penarik ini sesungguhnya merupakan faktor internal dan eksternal yang memotivasi wisatawan untuk mengambil keputusan untuk melakukan perjalanan. Menurut Sharpley, 1994 dan Wahab, 1975 (dalam Pitana dan Gayatri, 2005:52) menekankan,  bahwa faktor motivasi merupakan hal yang sangat mendasar dalam studi tentang wisatawan dan  pariwisata, karena motivasi merupakan pemicu  dari proses perjalanan wisata, walau motivasi ini acapkali tidak disadari secara penuh oleh wisatawan itu sendiri.

1).  Faktor Pendorong Berwisata

Faktor pendorong umumnya bersifat sosial-psikologis, atau merupakan person specific motivation, sedangkan faktor penarik merupakan destination specific attributes. Dengan adanya faktor pendorong, maka seseorang ingin melakukan perjalanan wisata, tapi belum jelas daerah mana yang akan dituju.  Ryan, 1993 (dalam Pitana dan Gayatri, 2005:61), dari kajian literaturnya menemukan berbagai faktor pendorong bagi seseorang untuk melakukan perjalanan wisata seperti di bawah ini.

a)         Kejenuhan: ingin melepaskan diri dari lingkungan yang dirasakan menjemukan, atau kejenuhan dari pekerjaan sehari-hari.

b)        Penyegaran: keinginan untuk penyegaran yang juga berhubungan dengan motivasi untuk escape di atas.

c)         Kegembiraan: ingin menikmati kegembiraan melalui berbagai permainan, yang merupakan pemunculan kembali dari sifat kekanak-kanakan, dan melepaskan diri sejenak dari berbagai urusan yang serius.

d)        Kekerabatan: ingin mempererat hubungan kekerabatan, khususnya dalam konteks VFR (Visiting Friends and Relations).

e)         Prestise: untuk menunjukkan gengsi, dengan mengunjungi destinasi yang menunjukkan kelas dan gaya hidup, yang juga merupakan dorongan untuk menaikkan status dan derajat sosial.

f)         Interaksi sosial: untuk dapat melakukan interaksi sosial dengan teman sejawat, atau dengan masyarakat lokal yang dikunjungi.

g)        Romantika: keinginan untuk bertemu dengan orang-orang yang bisa memberikan suasana romantis, untuk memenuhi kebutuhan seksual, khususnya dalam pariwisata seks.

h)        Kebudayaan: keinginan untuk melihat sesuatu yang baru, mempelajari orang lain atau daerah lain, atau kebudayaan etnis lain. Hal ini pendorong yang dominan dalam pariwisata.

i)          Pengalaman: keinginan untuk menemukan diri sendiri, karena diri sendiri biasanya bisa ditemukan pada saat kita menemukan daerah atau orang yang baru.

j)          Impian: keinginan untuk merealisasikan mimpi-mimpi, yang lama dicita-citakan, sampai mengorbankan diri dengan cara berhemat, agar bisa melakukan perjalanan.

Pada dasarnya seseorang melakukan perjalanan wisata dimotivasi oleh beberapa hal, motivasi-motivasi tersebut dapat dikelompokkan menjadi empat kelompok besar sebagai berikut: (1) Physical or physiological motivation yaitu motivasi yang bersifat fisik antara lain untuk relaksasi, kesehatan, kenyamanan, berpartisipasi dalam kegiatan olahraga, bersantai dan sebagainya. (2) Cultural motivation yaitu keinginan untuk mengetahui budaya, adat, tradisi dan kesenian daerah lain. (3)Social or interpersonal motivation yaitu motivasi yang bersifat sosial, seperti mengunjungi teman dan keluarga, menemui mitra kerja, melakukan hal-hal yang dianggap mendatangkan gengsi (prestice), melakukan ziarah, pelarian dari situasi yang membosankan dan seterusnya. (4) Fantasy motivation yaitu adanya motivasi di daerah lain sesorang akan bisa lepas dari rutinitas keseharian yang menjemukan dan yang memberikan kepuasan psikologis (McIntosh, 1977 dan Murphy, 1985; dalam Pitana dan Gayatri, 2005:60).

Pearce, 1998 (dalam Pitana dan Gayatri, 2005) berpendapat, wisatawan dalam melakukan perjalanan wisata termotivasi oleh beberapa faktor yakni: Kebutuhan fisiologis, keamanan, sosial, prestise, dan aktualiasasi diri. Sedangkan Jackson, 1989 (dalam Pitana dan Gayatri, 2005:62) melihat bahwa faktor penting yang menentukan permintaan pariwisata atau dorongan untuk berwisata berasal dari komponen daerah asal wisatawan antara lain, jumlah penduduk (population size), kemampuan finansial masyarakat (financial means), waktu senggang yang dimiliki (leisure time), sistem transportasi, dan sistem pemasaran pariwisata yang ada.

Dari beberapa pendapat di atas, dapat dikatakan bahwa faktor pendorong pariwisata dapat diprediksi dari jumlah penduduk dari suatu negara asal wisatawan, pendapatan perkapitanya, lamanya waktu senggang yang dimiliki yang berhubungan dengan musim di suatu negara, kemajuan teknologi informasi dan transportasi, sistem pemasaran yang berkembang, keamanan dunia, sosial dan politik serta aspek lain yang berhubungan dengan fisik dan non fisik wisatawan.

 

2)      Faktor Penarik Berwisata

Berbagai faktor penarik yang dimiliki oleh daerah tujuan wisata akan menyebabkan wisatawan akan memilih daerah tujuan wisata tertentu untuk memenuhi keinginan dan kebutuhannya. Medlik, 1980  dan Jackson, 1989 (dalam Pitana dan Gayatri 2005:62), telah mengidentifikasikan berbagai faktor penarik dan membedakannya atas sebelas faktor, yaitu: (1) iklim destinasi, (2) promosi pariwisata, (3) iklan, (4) pemasaran, (5) kejadian khusus, (6) potongan harga, (7) mengunjungi teman, (8) mengunjungi kerabat, (9) daya tarik wisata, (10) budaya, (11) lingkungan alamiah dan buatan. Lebih lanjut, ditentukan ada empat aspek yang harus diperhatikan dalam penawaran pariwisata. Aspek-aspek tersebut adalah sebagai berikut.

a)      Aspek daya tarik destinasi; merupakan atribut daerah tujuan wisata yang berupa apasaja yang dapat menarik  wisatawan dan setiap destinasi pasti memiliki daya tarik, baik daya tarik berupa alam maupun masyarakat dan budayanya.

b)      Aspek transportasi atau sering disebut aksesibilitas; merupakan atribut akses bagi wisatawan domestik dan mancanegara agar dengan mudah dapat mencapai tujuan ke tempat wisata baik secara internatsional maupun akses terhadap tempat-tempat wisata pada sebuah destinasi.

c)      Aspek fasilitas utama dan pendukung; merupakan atribut amenitas yang menjadi salah satu syarat daerah tujuan wisata agar wisatawan dapat dengan kerasan tinggal lebih lama pada sebuah destinasi.

d)     Aspek kelembagaan; atribut sumberdaya manusia, sistem, dan kelembagaannya berupa lembaga pariwisata yang akan mendukung sebuah destinasi layak untuk dikunjungi, aspek kelembagaan tersebut dapat berupa dukungan lembaga keamanan, lembaga pariwisata sebagai pengelola destinasi, dan lembaga pendukung lainnya yang dapat menciptakan kenyamanan wisatawan.

Selanjutnya Smith, 1988 (dalam Pitana dan Gayatri, 2005:62) mengklasifikasikan berbagai barang dan jasa yang mestinya disediakan oleh destinasi pariwisata menjadi enam kelompok besar, yaitu: (1)transportation, (2)travel services, (3)accommodation, (4)food services, (5)activities and attractions (recreation culture/entertainment), dan (6) retail goods.

Inti dari ketiga pernyataan di atas adalah, aspek penawaran semestinya dapat menjelaskan apa yang akan ditawarkan, atraksinya apa saja, jenis transportasi yang dapat digunakan apa saja, fasilitas apa saja yang tersedia pada sebuah destinasi, siapa saja yang bisa dihubungi sebagai perantara pembelian paket wisata yang akan dibeli.

 

  1. 3.      METODE PENELITIAN

Penelitian ini bersifat eksploratif-kualitatif, yaitu mengeksplorasi atau menggali potensi, dampak positif dan negatif, serta kemungkinan pengembangan kota sebagai daya tarik wisata Kota secara kualitatif. Pada akhirnya berdasarkan data dan informasi potensi, dampak positif dan negatif pengembangan, kemudian dianalisis menjadi keputusan  apakah memungkinkan dikembangkan kota sebagai daya tarik wisata Kota.  Lokasi penelitian adalah di wilayah Indonesia, di mana kemungkinan akan dikembangkan wisata kota seperti kota Denpasar, Amlapura, Malang, Surabaya, dan beberapa kota lainnya.

Penelitian ini bersifat eksploratif-kualitatif, sehingga dalam penelitian ini tidak berbicara tentang populasi dan besarnya sampel, karena penelitian ini tidak bermaksud melakukan jeneralisasi terhadap populasi. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini hanya membutuhkan responden atau informan yang mampu memberikan jawaban atau informasi kualitatif tentang hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan potensi pengembangan museum budaya, dampak positif dan negatif pengembangan museum budaya, dan akhirnya kemungkinan pengembangan kota menjadi daya tarik wisata Surabaya. Jadi, responden atau informan dalam penelitian ini adalah stakeholder museum budaya, seperti beberapa pejabat, pengusaha, tokoh masyarakat dan pelaku pariwisata, yang dianggap kempeten memberikan informasi yang berkaitan dengan pengembangan museum dan budaya

Jenis data kualitatif yang dikumpulkan melalui wawancara mendalam dan diskusi kelompok umumnya bersumber dari sumber primer yakni responden atau informan.  Jenisnya antara lain, opini atau pendapat pentingnya dibangun wisata kota, dampak positif dan negatif pembangunan wisata kota sebagai alternatif daya tarik wisata masa depan. Jenis data dan informasi kuantitatif  yaitu data berbentuk numerik atau angka-angka, yang lebih banyak bersumber dari sumber sekunder, yaitu dari instansi pemerintah kota.

Data penelitian ini bersumber dari sumber sekunder dan sumber primer. Sumber data sekunder adalah data yang bersumber dari pihak kedua, seperti Dinas Pariwisata Kota, Bappeda Kota, Sekretariat Kota, dan sebagainya. Data yang bersumber dari sumber sekunder melengkapi data yang diperoleh dari sumber primer.

Mengingat jenis penelitian adalah eksploratif-kualitatif, maka pengumpulan data penelitian menggunakan beberapa metode,yaitu: Observasi adalah metode pengumpulan data dengan melakukan pengamatan (observasi) atau melihat-lihat, yang mana dalam penelitian ini observasi dilakukan pada lokasi yang  dikembangkan menjadi wisata kota.

Teknik analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah deskriptif-kualitatif, yaitu memberi interpretasi, makna dan pembahasan mendalam terhadap fakta dan informasi kualitatif yang dikumpulkan, sehingga  mampu menggambarkan atau mendeskripsikan fenomena penelitian dan menjawab tujuan penelitian.

 

 

  1. 4.      HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN

4.1  Kota Sebagai Atraksi Wisata

Pariwisata adalah salah satu mesin penggerak perekonomian dunia yang terbukti mampu memberikan kontribusi terhadap kemakmuran sebuah negara. Pembangunan pariwisata mampu menggairahkan aktivitas bisnis untuk menghasilkan manfaat sosial. budaya, dan ekonomi yang signifikan bagi suatu negara. Ketika pariwisata direncanakan dengan baik, mestinya akan dapat memberikan manfaat bagi masyarakat pada sebuah destinasi. Keberhasilan pariwisata terlihat dari penerimaan pemerintah dari sektor pariwisata dapat mendorong sektor lainnya untuk berkembang. Keberhasilan yang paling mudah untuk diamati adalah bertambahnya jumlah kedatangan wisatawan dari periode ke periode. Pertambahan jumlah wisatawan dapat terwujud jika wisatawan yang telah berkunjung puas terhadap destinasi dengan berbagai atribut yang ditawarkan oleh pengelolanya. Wisatawan yang puas akan cenderung menjadi loyal untuk mengulang liburannya dimasa mendatang, dan memungkinkan mereka merekomen teman-teman, dan kerabatnya untuk berlibur ke tempat yang sama (Som dan Badarneh, 2011). Fenomena yang terjadi pada trend  pariwisata, khususnya di dunia saat ini adalah pesatnya pertumbuhan wisata kota.

Dari perspektif ekonomi, dampak positif pariwisata (kasus: pariwisata Bali-Indonesia) yaitu: (1) mendatangkan devisa bagi negara melalui penukaran mata uang asing di daerah tujuan wisata, (2) pasar potensial bagi produk barang dan jasa masyarakat setempat, (3) meningkatkan pendapatan masyarakat yang kegiatannya terkait langsung atau tidak langsung dengan jasa pariwisata, (4) memperluas penciptaan kesempatan kerja, baik pada sektor-sektor yang terkait langsung seperti perhotelan, restoran, agen  perjalanan, maupun pada sektor-sektor yang tidak terkait langsung seperti industri kerajinan, penyediaan produk-produk pertanian, atraksi budaya, bisnis eceran, jasa-jasa  lain dan sebagainya, (5) sumber pendapatan asli daerah (PAD), dan (6) merangsang kreaktivitas seniman, baik seniman pengrajin industri kecil maupun seniman ‘tabuh’ dan tayang diperuntukkan konsumsi wisatawan (Antara, 2011).

Jadi pariwisata di manapun, memang tak terbantahkan telah menimbulkan dampak positif (positive impact) bagi perekonomioan regional dan nasional, namun patut pula diakui bahwa pariwisata juga menimbulkan dampak negatif (negative impact), antara lain, menyusutnya lahan pertanian untuk pembangunan pendukung infrastruktur pariwisata, meningkatnya kriminalitas, kepadatan lalu lintas, urbanisasi dan  emigrasi, bermuculannya ruko-ruko, shopping centre  yang melanggar tataruang wilayah, degradasi lingkungan dan polusi. Dampak negatif yang disebutkan terakhir disebut eksternalitas, utamanya eksternalitas negatif (negative externality= external cost = external diseconomy), yaitu aktivitas kepariwisataan yang menimbulkan kerusakan lingkungan, polusi air (sungai, laut dan sumur) dan tanah, sehingga menyebabkan kerugian sosial yang ditanggung oleh masyarakat di daerah tujuan wisata (Antara, 2009).

Sejak diberlakukannya Undang-Undang (UU) Nomor 22 Tahun 1999 yang kemudian disempurnakan atau diganti menjadi UU Nomor 32 tahun 2004 tentang Pemerintah Daerah, sesungguhnya sudah lebih menjamin cita-cita penegakan prinsip-prinsip demokrasi yang menjunjung tinggi pluralitas, transparansi, akuntabilitas, dan berbasis pada kemampuan lokal. Hakekat otonomi daerah adalah kesempatan seluas-luasnya bagi pemerintah daerah untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakatnya, tidak hanya mengandalkan dana  perimbangan pusat dan daerah, tetapi juga menggali potensi sumber-sumber pendapatan asli daerah dengan tetap memperhatikan prinsip-prinsip keadilan dan keberlanjutan. Namun, pemerintah setempat belum secara optimal menggali sumber-sumber pendapatan di daerahnya.

Sebagai contoh bahwa kota berpotensi menjadi daya tarik wisata dapat dilihat di beberapa kota di negara maju, seperti di Kota Sidney Australia dapat ditemukan bangunan tua dimanfaatkan menampung Pedagang Kaki Lima. Banyak bangunan gudang lama, direstorasi dan disulap menjadi mall PKL, termasuk di antaranya gudang dipelabuhan yang menjadi pusat kegiatan anak muda. Ada anggapan, jika belum melihat Sidney Sunday Market atau Sydney Harbour, rasanya belum ke Sidney. Bagaimana kalau Pemda Kota juga mencoba konsep pemecahan pedagang kaki lima (PKL) seperti ini, dari berbagai kemungkinan pemecahan yang kretif yang ada.  Kota biasanya punya banyak  memiliki gudang, seperti gudang militer, gudang Pabrik Kina, gudang PJKA, gudang tekstil, dan lain sebagainya. Kalau benar-benar ingin membantu memecahkan permasalahan kota, bangunan lama dapat dimanfaatkan dengan baik Selain itu, pemiliknya juga bisa memperoleh keuntungan, sambil mematuhi UU No. 5 tahun 1992 tentang pelestarian cagar budaya, selain turut berperan dalam memecahkan permasalahan kota.  Restorasi sebenarnya lebih murah dibandingkan membangun bangunan baru dan ciri sebuah kota sebagai kota industri kuno tidak hilang.

Selain pangan dan sandang, manusia juga memerlukan  ilmu pengetahuan yang lebih baik. Sumber ilmu pengetahuan masyarakat perlu ditingkatkan melalui museum dan galery, serta lembaga nonformal sejenis lainnya. Kecenderungan manusia mengetahui bahwa dengan bekal pendidikan yang lebih tinggi, kemampuan manusia dalam memperjuangkan nasib hidupnya akan lebih baik dibandingkan dengan orang yang berpendidikan lebih rendah.

Orang yang pendidikannya lebih tinggi, orang akan lebih pandai bersaing dan lebih kreatif. Sedangkan, orang yang lebih rendah pendidikannya banyak yang sudah merasa cukup menerima nasibnya hidup di gubuk-gubuk serta meminta-minta dipinggir jalan. Pemerintah perlu segera menambah sarana kegiatan pendidikan nonformal. Museum dapat menjadi sumber inspirasi dan informasi tentang kreativitas budaya manusia dan kemampuan manusia dalam meningkatkan kualitas hidupnya di masa lalu. Contohnya, di beberapa kota di negara Eropa, museum telah menjadi sumber ilmu pengetahuan khususnya tentang sejarah, dan sekaligus dikomoditifikasi sebagai daya tarik wisata kota yang mengagumkan.

Kota Bandung masa lalu misalnya merupakan pusat Perusahaan Kereta Api di Indonesia; pusat perkantoran, pusat pendidikan, dan pusat perbengkelan Kereta Api di Pulau Jawa sejak abad 19. Namun sangat disayangkan, kota yang sangat bersejarah bagi perkereta-apian Indonesia ini belum juga memiliki Museum Kereta Api, padahal banyak bangunan yang merupakan aset PJKA yang sangat potensial dalam memberikan image Kota Bandung sebagai pusat perkereta-apian di Indonsia

Contoh lainnya, salah satu di antaranya yang sangat ideal untuk dijadikan Museum Kereta Api adalah Gedung Reparasi PJKA di jalan Pasirkaliki No 25 yang memiliki rel kereta api langsung masuk ke dalam gedung.  Pemerintah kota  semestinya memiliki rencana pengembangan permuseuman dengan memanfaatkan berbagai bangunan bersejarah tersebut, dalam rangka program pendidikan nonformal dan kegiatan kepurbakalaan, dan sekaligus menjadikannya sebagai daya tarik wisata kota.

Kota dan lingkungannya berkaitan erat dengan sejarah perkebunan teh, kopi, dan kina dengan produknya yang pernah berjaya memenuhi kebutuhan dunia dapat dikemas menjadi atraksi wisata. Bekas Pabrik Gas di sebuah kota dapat dimanfaatkan menjadi Museum Gas yang penting untuk menambah pengetahuan tentang sejarah proses produksi serta sistem jaringan penyaluran gas dari yang kuno sampai dengan LNG yang sangat modern saat ini, dan yang dapat memberikan pandangan bahwa ilmu dan teknologi itu telah menjadikan manusia hidupnya semakin baik.  Suatu aset sejarah budaya manusia yang juga dapat menjadi daya tarik wisata. Jika semua kekayaan kota-kota di Indonesia dikelola dengan bantuan Dinas Budaya dan Pariwista, akan sangat menarik dan berharga bagi generasi penerus.  Rakyat jadinya sadar akan ilmu pengetahuan, sejarah budaya, serta obyek wisata. Sebagai alternative tempat rekreasi, selain mall. Konsep pemikiran-pemikiran untuk menambah kegiatan pendidikan nonformal seperti ini, akan menjadi program pendidikan bangsa pada umumnya dan generasi muda khususnya.

 

4.2  Strategi Pengembangan Wisata Kota yang Berkelanjutan

Pariwisata apapun jenis dan namanya, hendaknya dapat dibangun dan dikembangkan berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip pembangunan berkelanjutan. Menurut United Nation (2005) prinsip-prinsip tersebut adalah satu kesatuan prinsip yang harus dipahami dan dilaksanakan secara holistik agar pembangunan pariwisata dapat berkesinambungan termasuk untuk pengembangan kota sebagai daya tarik wisata ataupun pengembangan kota wisata. Prinsip-prinsip tersebut adalah:

Prinsip pertama adalah pembangunan wisata kota mestinya dapat dibangun dengan melibatkan masyarakat lokal, mestinya visi pembangunan pariwisata dirancang berdasarkan ide masyarakat lokal  dan untuk kesejahteraan masyarakat lokal pula. Pengelolaan kepariwisataan yang telah dibangun mestinya juga melibatkan masyarakat lokal  sehingga masyarakat lokal  akan merasa memiliki “rasa memiliki” untuk perduli terhadap keberlanjutan pariwisata. Masyarakat lokal  harusnya menjadi pelaku bukan menjadi penonton.

Prinsip kedua adalah pembangunan wisata kota mestinya menciptakan keseimbangan antara kebutuhan wisatawan dan masyarakat.  Kepentingan pemberdayaan ekonomi masyarakat adalah tujuan yang didasarkan atas kerelaan untuk membentuk kualitas destinasi pariwisata yang diharapkan oleh wisatawan. Keseimbangan tersebut akan dapat terwujud jika semua pihak dapat bekerjasama dalam satu tujuan sebagai sebuah komunitas yang solid. Komunitas yang dimaksud adalah masyarakat lokal, pemerintah lokal, industri pariwisata, dan organisasi kemasyarakat yang tumbuh dan berkembang pada masyarakat di mana destinasi pariwisata dikembangkan.

Prinsip ketiga adalah pembangunan wisata kota mestinya melibatkan para pemangku kepentingan, dan melibatkan lebih banyak pihak akan mendapatkan input yang lebih baik. Pelibatan para pemangku kepentingan harus dapat menampung pendapat organisasi kemasyarakatan lokal, melibatkan kelompok masyarakat marginal atau miskin, melibatkan kaum perempuan, melibatkan asosiasi pariwisata, dan kelompok lainnya dalam masyarakat yang berpotensi mempengaruhi jalannya pembangunan dalam sebuah harmoni. Dalam sosiologi atau ilmu kemasyarakatan, terdapat beberapa kelompok berpengaruh dalam masyarakat, dan jika menghendaki pembangunan pariwisata  di suatu daerah bekelanjutan, mestinta semua kelompok dalam masyarakat dapat dilibatkan untuk menampung segala masukan dan saran-sarannya untuk pembangunan. Harus disadari, setiap saat, bahwa kelompok berpengaruh dalam masyarakat dapat bertambah atau berkurang jumlahnya seiring dengan berkembangnya kebebasan berdemokrasi dan mestinya harus  ada reevaluasi secara reguler terhadap jalannya pembangunan pariwisata. Keterlibatan masyarakat dalam pembangunan adalah  kondisi yang diinginkan dan mungkin menjadi elemen yang paling penting dari sebuah ideal program pembangunan. Mengembangkan mekanisme yang tepat untuk menggabungkan pandangan berbeda adalah penting untuk keberhasilan pembangunan yang menyesuaikan kepentingan masyarakat dan wisatawan secara bersama-sama. Masing-masing kelompok masyarakat memiliki kebutuhan yang sangat berbeda dalam hal fasilitas perumahan dan pelayanan.

Prinsip keempat adalah, pembangunan wisata kota mestinya memberikan kemudahan kepada para pengusaha lokal  dalam sekala kecil, dan menengah. Program pendidikan yang berhubungan dengan kepariwisataan harus mengutamakan penduduk lokal  dan industri yang berkembang pada wilayah tersebut harus mampu menampung para pekerja lokal  sebanyak mungkin.

Prinsip kelima adalah, pembangunan wisata kota mestinya  dikondisikan untuk tujuan membangkitkan bisnis lainnya “multiflier efek” baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung dalam masyarakat artinya pariwisata harus memberikan dampak pengganda pada sektor lainnya, baik usaha baru maupun usaha yang telah berkembang saat ini.

Prinsip keenam adalah pembangunan wisata kota mestinya adanya kerjasama antara masyarakat lokal  sebagai kreator atraksi  wisata dengan para operator penjual paket wisata, sehingga perlu dibangun hubungan kerjasama yang saling menguntungkan. Misalnya, berkembangnya sanggar tari, kelompok tani, dan lainnya karena mendapatkan keuntungan dari berkembangnya sektor pariwisata. Sementara para operator sangat berkepentingan terhadap eksistensi dan keberlanjutan atraksi wisata pada wilayah pariwisata. Idealnya harus ada keseimbangan permintaan dan penawaran yang berujung pada kepuasan wisatawan, namun demekian dalam praktiknya akan ada perbedaan mendasar antara masyarakat lokal dan wisatawan sehubungan dengan perbedaan perbedaan sikap terhadap pembangunan itu sendiri).  Penelitian terhadap perilaku wisatawan  akan dapat menjadi jalan keluar untuk mengatasi perbedaan tersebut dengan melakukan wawancara dengan para wisatawan untuk memahami mengapa mereka memutuskan untuk mengunjungi sebuah destinasi, seberapa baik harapan mereka terpenuhi dan apa yang dapat dilakukan untuk membuat mereka tetap lebih terpuaskan. Menjaga keseimbangan antara kebutuhan wisatawan dan orang-orang dari semua masyarakat sangatlah penting untuk diketahui. Seperti banyak penduduk kota wisata memilih untuk tinggal di sana karena gaya hidup yang dirasakan dan faktor kemudahan, program yang dirancang untuk memfasilitasi penggunaan fasilitas, dan layanan yang dapat digunakan untuk mengurangi gesekan antara warga dan pengunjung.

Prinsip ketujuh adalah, pembangunan wisata kota mestinya mampu menjamin keberlanjutan, memberikan keuntungan bagi masyarakat saat ini dan tidak merugikan generasi yang akan datang. Adanya anggapan bahwa pembangunan pariwisata berpotensi merusak lingkungan jika dihubungkan dengan  peningkatan jumlah wisatawan dan degradasi daerah tujuan pariwisata adalah sesuatu yang logis jika tidak dapat kelola dengan baik.

Prinsip kedelapan adalah pembangunan wisata kota mestinya bertumbuh dalam prinsip optimalisasi bukan pada exploitasi. Konsep ini merupakan kebutuhan yang semestinya diakui untuk menjadi kendali atas dimensi-dimensi pembangunan pariwisata yang dapat mengancam berkelanjutan penggunaan sumber daya yang terbatas,  pada saat yang bersamaan, konsep tersebut berhadapan dengan keinginan untuk mengoptimalkan peluang sebagai tujuan pembangunan dan mewujudkan manfaat potensial yang terkait dengan wisatawan yang semakin meningkat.

Prinsip kesembilan adalah pembangunan wisata kota mestinya ada monitoring dan evaluasi secara periodik untuk memastikan pembangunan pariwisata tetap berjalan dalam konsep pembagunan berkelanjutan. Mestinya pembagunan pariwisata dapat diletakkan pada prinsip pengelolaan dengan manajemen kapasitas, baik kapasitas wilayah, kapasitas obyek wisata tertentu, kapasitas ekonomi, kapasitas sosial, dan kapasitas sumberdaya yang lainnya sehingga dengan penerapan manajemen kapasitas dapat memperpanjang daur hidup pariwisata itu sendiri sehingga konsepsi konservasi dan preservasi serta komoditikasi untuk kepentingan ekonomi dapat berjalan bersama-sama dan pembangunan pariwisata berkelanjutan dapat diwujudkan.

Prinsip kesepuluh adalah pembangunan wisata kota mestinya dalam keterbukaan terhadap penggunaan sumber daya seperti penggunaan air bawah tanah, penggunaan lahan, dan penggunaan sumberdaya lainnya harus dapat dipastikan dengan semestinya.

Prinsip kesebelas adalah pembangunan wisata kota mestinya melakukan program peningkatan sumberdaya manusia dalam bentuk pendidikan, pelatihan, dan sertifikasi untuk bidang keahlian pariwisata sehingga dapat dipastikan bahwa para pekerja siap untuk bekerja sesuai dengan uraian tugas yang telah ditetapkan sesuai dengan bidangnya masing-masing sehingga program sertifikasi akan menjadi pilihan yang tepat. Sertifikasi sebagai proses untuk meningkatkan standar industri memiliki pendukung dan dan nilai kritik di bawah lima aspek: keadilan, efektivitas, efisiensi, kredibilitas, dan integrasi.

Prinsip keduabelas adalah pembangunan wisata kota mestinya terwujudnya tiga kualitas yakni pariwisata harus mampu mewujudkan kualitas hidup ”quality of life” masyarakat lokal, pada sisi yang lainnya pariwisata harus mampu memberikan kualitas berusaha ”quality of opportunity” kepada para penyedia jasa dalam industri pariwisata dan sisi berikutnya dan menjadi yang terpenting adalah terciptanya kualitas pengalaman wisatawan ”quality of experience”.

Sampai pada sebuah kesimpulan bahwa, pembangunan wisata kota mestinya akan dapat berkesinambungan jika dibangun dan dikembangkan pada prinsip-prinsip dasar pembangunan pariwisata yang berkelanjutan, apapun bentuk dan namanya, di manapun dan kapanpun dikembangkan, dan siapapun yang mengembangkannya.

Menurut Ardika (Kompas, Senin, 13 Maret 2006) Kepariwisataan ada dan tumbuh karena perbedaan, keunikan, kelokalan baik itu yang berupa bentang alam, flora, fauna maupun yang berupa kebudayaan sebagai hasil cipta, karsa, rasa dan budhi manusia. Tanpa perbedaan itu, tak akan ada kepariwisataan, tidak ada orang yang melakukan perjalanan atau berwisata. Oleh karena itu, melestarikan alam dan budaya serta menjunjung kebhinekaan adalah fungsi utama kepariwisataan. Alam dan budaya dengan segala keunikan dan perbedaannya adalah aset kepariwisataan yang harus dijaga kelestariannya. Hilangnya keunikan alam dan budaya, berarti hilang pulalah kepariwisataan itu.

Dengan berlandaskan prinsip keunikan dan kelokalan, kepariwisataan Indonesia didasari oleh falsafah hidup bangsa Indonesia sendiri, yaitu konsep prikehidupan yang berkeseimbangan. Seimbangnya hubungan manusia dengan Tuhan, seimbangnya hubungan manusia dengan sesamanya, seimbangnya hubungan manusia dengan lingkungan alam. Konsep ini mengajarkan kepada kita untuk menjunjung nilai-nilai luhur agama serta mampu mengaktualisasikannya, menghargai nilai-nilai kemanusiaan, toleran, kesetaraan, kebersamaan, persaudaraan, memelihara lingkungan alam. Kesadaran untuk menyeimbangkan kebutuhan materi dan rokhani, seimbangnya pemanfaatan sumber daya dan pelestarian.

Konsep ini juga menempatkan manusia sebagai subyek. Manusia dengan segala hasil cipta, rasa, karsa, dan budhinya adalah budaya. Dengan demikian kepariwisataan Indonesia adalah kepariwisataan yang berbasis masyarakat (community based tourism) dan berbasis budaya (cultural tourism). Kepariwisataan yang dibangun dengan prinsip dari masyarakat, oleh masyarakat dan untuk masyarakat.

 

  1. KESIMPULAN

Mengembangkan pariwisata di perkotaan adalah usaha untuk meningkatkan pendapatan asli daerah melalui pajak hotel dan restoran (PHR), dan sekaligus meningkatkan aktivitas ekonomi di perkotaan. Pengembangan pariwisata apapun jenis dan namanya memerlukan fungsi pengelolaan yang kreatif dan inovatif berdasarkan atas perencanaan yang matang, pelaksanaan yang konsisten, dan evaluasi yang terukur dan konstruktif. Berdasarkan konseptual tersebut, maka akan lebih baik untuk dilakukan pre-researh untuk menggali potensi yang senyatanya terhadap pengembangan kota sebagai wisata kota yang berhasil. Pre-researh diharapkan dapat merumuskan program dan objektif yang dapat dicapai serta dapat dioperasionaliasikan berdasarkan project life cycle yang semestinya. Project life cycle yang baik adalah project yang melewati fase-fase evaluasi yang terukur untuk menghindari kegagalan yang tidak diharapkan.

Pembangunan wisata kota adalah pembangunan yang terintegrasi dan holistik yang akan mewujudkan kepuasan semua pihak. Perlunya integrasi aspek-aspek terkait yang terdiri dari: (1)Aspek daya tarik destinasi; merupakan atribut daerah tujuan wisata yang berupa apasaja yang dapat menarik  wisatawan dan setiap destinasi pasti memiliki daya tarik, baik daya tarik berupa alam maupun masyarakat dan budayanya. Hal ini penegasan dari bagian Atribut Kota Wisata. (2)         Aspek transportasi atau sering disebut aksesibilitas; merupakan atribut akses bagi wisatawan domestik dan mancanegara agar dengan mudah dapat mencapai tujuan ke tempat wisata baik secara internatsional maupun akses terhadap tempat-tempat wisata pada sebuah destinasi. (3) Aspek fasilitas utama dan pendukung; merupakan atribut amenitas yang menjadi salah satu syarat daerah tujuan wisata agar wisatawan dapat dengan kerasan tinggal lebih lama pada sebuah destinasi. (4)Aspek kelembagaan; atribut sumberdaya manusia, sistem, dan kelembagaannya berupa lembaga pariwisata yang akan mendukung sebuah destinasi layak untuk dikunjungi, aspek kelembagaan tersebut dapat berupa dukungan lembaga keamanan, lembaga pariwisata sebagai pengelola destinasi, dan lembaga pendukung lainnya yang dapat menciptakan kenyamanan wisatawan.

Kota sebagai pusat bisnis merupakan centrum dari akvitas malam para wisatawan baik wisatawan domestik maupun mancanegara. Sehingga perlu pengelolaan dan penataan. (1) Penataan Sentra bisnis masyarakat lokal yang mestinya dapat digalakkan adalah sebagai berikut: Pasar Malam tradisional yang menjual segala bentuk cinderamata khas sebuah kota, makanan tradisional, pagelaran seni tari tradisional, Spa terapi, fisioterapi untuk penghilang lelah para wisatawan sehabis tour. (2) Penataan penginapan, hotel, dan sejenisnya mestinya dapat diarahkan pada pada area sub urban atau pinggiran kota untuk mengurangi kekroditan kota. (3) Penataan daerah atraksi wisata baik yang given/alamiah maupun man-made/buatan dapat diarahkan pada kawasan rural atau countryside.

 

  1. 6.      DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Anonim ( 2005). Tourism Highlight 2005, UN-WTO, Madrid.

Anonim. 2001). Visitor Profile Report 2001. Hong Kong Tourism Board.

Antara, M,  Pitana, G. (2009). Tourism Labour Market in the Asia Pacific Region: The Case of Indonesia. Paper Presented at the Fifth UNWTO International Conference on Tourism Statistics: Tourism an Engine for Employment Creation. Held in Bali, Indonesia, 30 March – 2 April 2009.

Antara, M.  (2009). Pengembangan Museum Budaya Terpadu Sebagai Daya Tarik Wisata Kota Surabaya. Makalah tidak dipublikasikan.

Ap, J., Mak, B. (1999). Balancing Cultural Heritage, Conservation and Tourism Development in a Sustainable Manner. Paper presented at the International Conference: Heritage and Tourism, 13th–15th December, Hong Kong.

Ardika, I W. (2003). Pariwisata Budaya Berkelanjutan, Refleksi dan   Harapan di Tengah Perkembangan Global. Program Studi Magister (S2): (Kajian Pariwisata Program Pascasarjana Universitas Udayana)

Ashworrth, G,  Tunbridge. (2000). In contemporary society, heritage is often treated as a commodity for economic uses, especially for tourism

Gunn, C. (1998). Tourism planning (3rd ed.). New York: Taylor and Francis.

Hewison. (1988). The tourism product or as a ‘commodity: Culture has become a commodity

Kotler P., Keller K. (2006). Marketing Management, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Inc, New Jersey.

Kotler, P.,  Gary A. (1999). Principle of Marketing. 8th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Lowenthal, D. (1996). The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History. The Free Press, New York.

Nawir, (2008). Studi Islam, Bandung: Cipustaka Media Perintis. Syahrial

Pitana, I G., Gayatri, PG. (2005). Sosiologi Pariwisata. Penerbit Andi Yogyakarta.

Reynolds, P. (1999). Design of the Process and Product Interface. In A. Leask & I. Yeoman (eds), Heritage Visitor Attractions (pp. 110–126) Cassell, New York.

Shackley, M. (2001). Managing Sacred Sites. Continuum, London.

Som, AP., Badarneh , MB. (2011). Tourist Satisfaction and Repeat Visitation; Toward a New Comprehensive Model. International Journal of Human and Social Sciences 6:1 2011

Timothy, D. J. (1997). Tourism and the Personal Heritage Experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(3), 751–754.

Wacik, J. (2010). Kata Sambutan Menteri Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata: Program Tahun Kunjung Museum 2010. Dalam Google: Museum dan Kebudayaan.

 

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

I GUSTI BAGUS RAI UTAMA, SE., MMA., MA.

AGROWISATA SEBAGAI PARIWISATA ALTERNATIF DI INDONESIA

Solusi Masif Pengentasan Kemiskinan

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Hubungi Penulis: hp 081337868577

POTENSI AGROWISATA SEBUAH STUDI KASUS DESA-DESA DI BALI

I GUSTI BAGUS RAI UTAMA, SE., MMA., MA.

AGROWISATA SEBAGAI PARIWISATA ALTERNATIF DI INDONESIA

Solusi Masif Pengentasan Kemiskinan

 

POTENSI AGROWISATA SEBUAH STUDI KASUS DESA-DESA DI BALI

 

 

1.            Desa Bayung Gede, Kintamani, Bali

 

Hasil observasi dan analisis SWOT terhadap sumberdaya desa Bayung Gede, ternyata desa ini layak disebut desa  wisata berbasis agrowisata. Adapun keunikan yang dimiliki oleh desa ini adalah penduduk desa Bayung Gede memiliki kekeluaragaan yang erat serta memiliki aktivitas keagamaan dan menjungjung nilai-nilai spritualitas yang cukup kental. Keunikan yang paling menarik adalah tradisi masyarakat setempat yakni kuburan ari ari yang hanya dapat ditemukan di desa Bayung Gede saja (Utama, 2007).

 

 

Foto Kuburan Ari-ari di Desa Bayung Gede, Kintamani, Bali

Sumber Utama, 2007

 

Desa Bayung Gede memiliki perkebunan rakyat berupa perkebunan jeruk Bali yang cukup memiliki kekhususan rasa yang manis dan buah yang cukp besar. Selain perkebunan Jeruk, penduduk desa Bayung Gede juga ada yang bercocok tanam sayur mayor baik untuk konsumsi masyarakat lokal  maupun untuk pendukung industri pariwisata di Bali.

 

 

Foto Perkebunan Jeruk milik penduduk Desa Bayung Gede, Kintamani Bali

Sumber Utama, 2007

 

Desa Bayung Gede terletak cukup strategis karena berdekatan dengan objek wisata danau Batur Kintamani yang sudah terkenal, artinya kekuatan objek wisata alam Kintamani dapat menjadi peluang bagi Desa Bayung Gede untuk menjadi desa wisata ataupun agrowisata.

 

Anggapan Warga Desa Bayung Gede tentang Agrowisata

Agrowisata dianggap dapat memberikan peluang untuk meningkatkan pendapatan keeeluarga, agrowisata juga dianggap dapat memunculkan peluang bisnis baru yang dapat dilakukan oleh warga desa, tentu saja agrowisata dapat meningkatkan status sosial dari desa mereka. (hasil wawancara dengan beberapa warga desa, 2007).

 

“Agrowisata Bayung Gede”

Semboyan “Jangan Pulang sebelum membeli Jeruk!”

 

Produk Atribut  Kondisi Kemasan

Atraksi  •             Kuburan Ari-ari •             Lestari   •             Makna Unik

•             Kebun Jeruk       •             Terawat baik      •             Non olahan

•             Kebun Sayur      •             Musiman             •             Organik

•             Tradisi   •             Musiman             •             Event rutin

•             Budaya •             Tarian, Gamelan               •             Seka/group

Ameniti                •             Penginapan        •             Belum tertata    •             Milik swasta

•             Restoran              •             Belum tertata    •             Milik swasta

•             Fasilitas umum  •             Terbatas              •             Milik umum

•             Visitor Center    •             Belum tertata    •             Belum tertata

Akses    •             Jarak dari Bandara           •             60 km    •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Jarak dari Kota Kabupaten           •             10 km•                 •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Bus besar            •             Terakses              •             Paket Tour

•             Bus Kecil              •             Terakses              •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

Ansileri •             Kerjasama dengan Travel agent                •             Belum tertata    •             Belum terbentuk

•             Komite Pariwisata Desa •             Belum terbentuk             •             Belum terbentuk

•             Guide lokal /desa             •             Belum terbentuk             •             Belum terbentuk

Community Involment  •             Keramahtamahan            •             Belum terintegrasi           •             Belum terintegrasi

•             Keterlibatan       •             Belum terintegrasi           •             Belum terintegrasi

Objek Wisata Terdekat  •             Danau Batur

 

•             Desa Truyan       •             Lestari

 

•             Lestari   •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Paket Tour/Mandiri

Sumber: Hasil observasi, 2007

 

Kondisi di atas mungkin telah berubah saat ini, namun demikian aspek 4A+CI adalah rumusan yang ideal untuk mengukur potensi agrowisata di suatu desa atau wilayah.

 

 

2.            Desa Candikuning, Baturiti , Tabanan,  Bali

 

Desa Candikuning merupakan desa penyangga kawasan wisata Bedugul, yang memiliki tiga objek wisata yang sudah dikenal luas, yakni Kebun Raya Bali, Pura Ulun Danu, dan Danau Beratan.

 

 

Foto Kebun Raya Bali

Sumber: Observasi, 2007

 

Kebun Raya Bali telah menjadi inspirator berkembangnya kawasan wisata Bedugul khususnya yang berkaitan dengan pengembangan agrowisata rakyat di sekitar kawasan Bedugul. Selain Kebun Raya Bali, kawasan bedugul memang memiliki pemandangan alam yang cukup menawan. Produk pertanian yang potensial untuk dikemas menjadi icon agrowisata seperti strawberry, sayur sayuran, kentang, Jagung, dan bunga-bunga yang biasanya digunakan untuk keperluan keagamaan di Bali.

 

 

Foto Pasar Tradisional di kawasan Bedugul, Bali

Sumber: Observasi, 2007

 

Di antara pengunjung yang sempat diwawancarai, mereka berpendapat jika berwisata ke Bedugul tanpa membawa oleh-oleh, katanya belum ke Bedugul. Sebelum sempat makan jagung dan membeli strawberry rasanya belum lengkap artinya Strawberry dan sayur-sayuran secara otomatis telah menjadi icon dari kawasan Bedugul khususnya untuk desa Candikuning sebagai agrowisata di kawasan ini.

 

 

Anggapan Warga Desa Candikuning tentang Agrowisata

 

Senada dengan warga desa Bayung Gede, warga desa Candikuning juga memiliki  anggapan yang sama bahwa agrowisata dapat memberikan peluang untuk meningkatkan pendapatan keluarga, berpeluang memunculkan bisnis baru terkait pariwisata, dan meningkatkan status desanya (hasil wawancara dengan beberapa warga desa, 2007)

 

“Agrowisata Candikuning”

Semboyan “Jangan Pulang sebelum menikmati jagung rebus dan membeli strawberry!”

 

Produk Atribut  Kondisi Kemasan

Atraksi  •             Kebun Strawberry           •             Terawat baik      •             Non olahan

•             Kebun Raya Bali                •             Terawat baik      •             Milik LIPI Botanical

•             Kebun Sayur      •             Musiman             •             Organik

•             Tradisi   •             Musiman             •             Event rutin

•             Budaya •             Tarian, Gamelan               •             Seka/group

Ameniti                •             Penginapan        •             Tertata baik        •             Milik swasta

•             Restoran              •             Tertata baik        •             Milik swasta

•             Fasilitas umum  •             Terbatas bak      •             Milik umum

•             Visitor Center    •             Belum tertata    •             Belum tertata

Akses    •             Jarak dari Bandara           •             40 km    •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Jarak dari Kota Kabupaten           •             15 km•                 •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Bus besar            •             Terakses              •             Paket Tour

•             Bus Kecil              •             Terakses              •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

Ansileri •             Kerjasama dengan Travel agent                •             Telah dikenal     •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Komite Pariwisata Desa •             Belum terbentuk             •             Belum terbentuk

•             Guide lokal /desa             •             Belum terbentuk             •             Belum terbentuk

Community Involment` •             Keramahtamahan            •             Belum terintegrasi           •             Belum terintegrasi

•             Keterlibatan       •             Belum terintegrasi           •             Belum terintegrasi

Objek Wisata Terdekat  •             Kebun Raya Bali

 

•             Danau Bratan

 

•             Pura Ulun Danu

 

•             Agrowisata Pancasari     •             Lestari

 

•             Lestari

 

•             Lestari

 

•             Belum Tertata   •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Paket Tour/Mandiri

Sumber: Hasil observasi, 2007

 

Kondisi di atas mungkin telah berubah saat ini, namun demikian aspek 4A+CI adalah rumusan yang ideal untuk mengukur potensi agrowisata di suatu desa atau wilayah.

 

 

 

3.            Desa Wisata Blimbingsari, Jembrana, Bali

 

Desa Blimbingsari telah dinyatakan sebagai desa wisata di kabupaten Jembrana. Desa yang hanya berpenduduk 200 KK ini memiliki keunikan dan tradisi yang secara turun temurun tetap dilestarikan. Di tengah lingkaran desa Blimbingsari terbangun sebuah Gereja dengan arsitektur Bali dengan daya tamping lebih dari 300 orang. Hampir mirip dengan desa tetangganya yakni desa Palasari juga memiliki keunikan yang hampir sama. Kedua desa tersebut menjadi tujuan berlibur pada hari-hari libur khususnya bagi kaum urban asal kedua desa tersebut. Dengan penataan dan bloking desa ala kawasan jaman Belanda, kedua desa tersebut terlihat sangat kontras dengan desa-desa lainnya  disekitarnya.

 

 

Foto Bangunan sebuah Gereja di tengah desa Blimbingsari

Sumber: Observasi, 2007.

 

Uniknya lagi, hampir 100% penduduk desa Blimbingsari penganut agama Kristen yang masih memegang teguh nilai—nilai kekristenannya di tengah arus globalisasi. Desa ini menjadi unik karena berbeda dengan desa-desa lainnya di Bali karena perbedaan factor agama penduduknya. Desa Blimbingsari memiliki lahan kebun kelapa dan kakao sekitar 400 hektar yang mengelingi desa ini. Potensi agrowisata bagi desa Blimbingsari adalah buah kelapa yang dapat dinikmati secara langsung. Ada produk lainnya yang cukup popular di desa tersebut yakni produksi gula merah yang berasal dari kelapa. Produk lainnya yang potensial dikembangkan di desa tersebut seperti topi dari anyaman daun kelapa, dan produk olahan lain dari buah kelapa.

 

Foto Jalan Masuk Menuju desa Blimbingsari

Sumber: Observasi, 2007

 

Anggapan Warga Desa Blimbingsari tentang Agrowisata

Masyrakat desa ini sangat antusius dengan agrowisata atau deasa wisata ini, mereka beranggapan bahwa desa wisata dapat mengangkat taraf hidup warga desa menjadi lebih baik, dan tentu saja status desa mereka akan terangkat. Saat ini desa Blimbingsari telah dinyatakan sebagai desa wisata oleh pemerintah daerah Bali. Walaupun demikian pengembangan potensi desa tersebut menjadi desa wisata yang berbasis agro masih dalam tahap pembenahan atau dalam istilah tourist area life cycle disebut tahapan explorasi. Telah mulai ada wisatawan atau pengunjung yang datang ke desa tersebut untuk berlibur, dan biasanya mereka menginap di rumah penduduk yang memang sengaja telah disiapkan untuk penginapan. Desa ini memang unik, hanya di  desa ini sajalah wisatawan dapat menginap secara langsung tanpa harus kebingungan mencari hotel (hasil wawancara dengan beberapa warga desa, 2007)

 

 

“Agrowisata Blimbingsari”

Semboyan “Jangan Pulang sebelum memotret gereja Bali serta membawa pulang minyak kelapa dan gula merah!”

 

Produk Atribut  Kondisi Kemasan

Atraksi  •             Kebun Kelapa    •             Terawat baik      •             Non olahan

•             Kebun Kakao     •             Terawat baik      •             Non olahan

•             Gula Merah        •             Terawat baik      •             Non olahan

•             Minyak Kelapa Asli          •             Terawat baik      •             Organik non olahan

•             Tradisi/Gereja Kristen Bali            •             Musiman             •             Event rutin (Paskah, Natal, dll)

•             Budaya Bali         •             Tarian, Gamelan               •             Seka/group

Ameniti                •             Penginapan        •             Tertata baik        •             Milik Warga Desa

•             Restoran              •             Tertata baik        •             Milik Warga Desa

•             Fasilitas umum  •             Terbatas bak      •             Milik umum

•             Visitor Center    •             Belum tertata    •             Balai Desa

Akses    •             Jarak dari Bandara           •             110 km  •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Jarak dari Kota Kabupaten           •             15 km    •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Bus besar            •             Terakses              •             Paket Tour

•             Bus Kecil              •             Terakses              •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

Ansileri •             Kerjasama dengan Travel agent                •             Telah dikenal     •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Komite Pariwisata Desa •             Telah terbentuk               •             Telah terbentuk

•             Guide lokal /desa             •             Telah terbentuk               •             Diatur oleh komite

Community Involment` •             Keramahtamahan            •             Telah  terintegrasi            •             Telah  terintegrasi

•             Keterlibatan       •             Telah  terintegrasi            •             Telah  terintegrasi

Objek Wisata Terdekat  •             Taman Nasional Bali Barat

•             Pura Rambutsiwi

•             Pulau Menjangan

•             Bendungan Palasari        •             Lestari

 

•             Lestari

•             Lestari

•             Kurang  terawat                •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

 

•             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Paket Tour/Mandiri

Sumber: Hasil observasi, 2007

 

Kondisi di atas mungkin telah berubah saat ini, namun demikian aspek 4A+CI adalah rumusan yang ideal untuk mengukur potensi agrowisata di suatu desa atau wilayah.

 

4.            Desa Pelaga, Badung, Bali

 

Pelaga adalah sebuah kota kecil di bagian tengah Bali yang dikitari oleh pengunungan dan hutan lindung. Sebuah agrowisata telah di bangun oleh seorang warga Bali yang peduli dengan warga desa, tengah gundah dengan bisnis pariwisata yang hanya memusatkan bisnisnya di kawasan perkotaan saja (Astawa, 2007)

 

 

Foto Desa Pelaga

Sumber Observasi, 2007

 

Dibangunnya Bagus Agrowisata ini bertujuan untuk objekk wisata yang ramah lingkungan dan produksi pertaniaannya berupa produk organi sebagai produk bahan makanan untuk keperluan industri pariwisata. Produk pertanian dari kawasan ini berupa sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan. Daya tarik kawasan ini sebagai agrowisata didukung oleh pemandangan alam yang indah dan tentu saja kehidupan masyarakatnya yang cukup damai.

 

Foto Lahan agro strawberry di Pelaga

Sumber: Observasi, 2007

 

Anggapan Warga Desa Pelaga tentang Agrowisata

 

Warga desa beranggapan agrowisata dapat memberikan peluang bisnis kepada para warga khususnya bisnis yang terkait dengan pariwisata. Pengembangan agrowisata di desa tersebut, telah memberi peluang kerja warga desa untuk bekerja dan mendapatkan tambahan pendapatan (hasil wawancara dengan beberapa warga desa, 2007)

“Agrowisata Pelaga”

Semboyan “Jangan Pulang sebelum melintasi Jembatan Gantung dan membeli Strawberry atau sayuran!”

 

Produk Atribut  Kondisi Kemasan

Atraksi  •             Kebun Strawberry           •             Terawat baik      •             Non olahan

•             Kebun Sayur mayor        •             Terawat baik      •             Non olahan

•             Kebun Agro swasta         •             Terawat baik      •             Non olahan

•             Jembatan Gantung         •             Terawat baik      •             Milik umum

•             Tradisi   •             Musiman             •             Event rutin

•             Budaya Bali         •             Tarian, Gamelan               •             Seka/group

Ameniti                •             Penginapan        •             Tertata baik        •             Milik Swasta

•             Restoran              •             Tertata baik        •             Milik Swasta

•             Fasilitas umum  •             Terbatas bak      •             Milik umum dan swasta

•             Visitor Center    •             Belum tertata    •             Belum tertata

Akses    •             Jarak dari Bandara           •             50 km    •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Jarak dari Kota Kabupaten           •             20 km    •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Bus besar            •             Terakses              •             Paket Tour

•             Bus Kecil              •             Terakses              •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

Ansileri •             Kerjasama dengan Travel agent                •             Telah dikenal     •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Komite Pariwisata Desa •             Belum terbentuk             •             Belum terbentuk

•             Guide lokal /desa             •             Belum terbentuk             •             Belum terbentuk

Community Involment` •             Keramahtamahan            •             Belum  terintegrasi          •             Belum  terintegrasi

•             Keterlibatan       •             Belum  terintegrasi          •             Belum  terintegrasi

Objek Wisata Terdekat  •             Pura Taman Ayun

•             Alas Kedaton

•             Mongkey Forest Sangeh               •             Lestari

•             Lestari

•             Lestari   •             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Paket Tour/Mandiri

•             Paket Tour/Mandiri

Sumber: Hasil observasi, 2007

 

Kondisi di atas mungkin telah berubah saat ini, namun demikian aspek 4A+CI adalah rumusan yang ideal untuk mengukur potensi agrowisata di suatu desa atau wilayah.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.