Conclusion and Recommendation
Links to Journal Agrotourism
1) The opportunities of agrotourism development in Bali
Agroutorism development in Bali has a number of opportunities such as increasing family incomes, creating working fields for the local communities, generating related tourism businesses, and increasing value of the village. Family income increases are considered to be the most potential opportunity compare to others.
2) The barriers factors of agrotourism development in Bali
The hardest barriers factors agroutorism development in Bali is the inadequate infrastructures, then followed with limited public facilities. Imperfect human resource skills, scarce investments, and insufficient government supports are the last three barrier factors.
3) The stakeholders’ opinions toward agrotourism development in Bali.
The stakeholders predominantly agree that ecological resources particularly lakes, social life especially farmers and their lives, and cultural resources such as unique traditions are the strength factors of agrotourism development in Bali.
4) The weakness factors agrotourism development in Bali
A number of weaknesses of agrotourism development agreed by the stakeholders from the weakest factors until the least weakness contributors as follows; lack government support, lack of investment, lack of infrastructures, and lack of human skills. But, incomplete public facilities are not considered as weaknesses factors.
5) The opportunity factors agrotourism development in Bali
Generating related tourism businesses are the most potential opportunity of agrotourism development in Bali. However there are still numerous opportunities generated from agrotourism such as providing local employments, increasing family incomes, and increasing value of the village.
6) The threat factors agrotourism development in Bali
Degradation of natural resources regarded as the riskiest threat of agrotourism development in Bali. The second most serious matter is land using problems as many areas have been developed inappropriately and are not in accordance with the principle of tourism development. Other threats such as pollutions (including air, water, and land pollutions), host attitude changes, increasing criminalities, as well as commercialization of traditions are also supposed to be threats factors however they are not as serious as the two hazardous threats.
7) The contributions of agrotourism toward economy improvement
Agrotourism contributes lots of things in improving the economy of the local communities. The contributions are in the forms of agricultural product improvements, and stimulations of other related tourism enterprises such as handicraft shops, restaurants, and accommodations.
8) The contributions of agrotourism toward improvement of social situation
Agrotourism plays roles in improving the social situations of the local communities particularly poverty alleviation, decreasing unemployment as well as declining urbanization.
9) The contributions of agrotourism toward sustainable tourism development in Bali
Nature conservation as one the sustainable tourism development indicators is contributed by agrotourism development in Bali. Other contributions such as international tourist arrival increase and generating economic incomes which can be seen from the establishments of tourism businesses for local communities strengthen argument that agrotourism plays role in applying the principles of sustainable tourism development.
5.2. Recommendation and Strategies
Based on the research finding, this chapter formulates the strategy of agrotourism development in Bali by using SWOT analysis which formulated into four strategies comprises SO (a strategy which uses the strengths to take advantages of the opportunities), WO (a strategy which overcomes the weaknesses by taking advantages of opportunities), ST (a strategy which use the strengths to avoid threats, and WT (a strategy which minimizes the weaknesses and avoids threats (table 5.1)
SWOT Matrix: Agrotourism Development in Bali
S – Strengths
• Rice Fields
• Unique traditions
• Agricultural organizations
• Agricultural ceremonies
• Organizations linkages
• Human resources
• Agriculture regulations
• Information systems
O – Opportunities
• Generating tourism business
• Increasing family income
• Increasing value of the village
W – Weaknesses
• Lack of government support
• Lack of investment
• Lack of infrastructures
• Lack of human skills
• Lack of public facilities
• Degradation of natural resources
• Land using problems
• Changing host attitudes
• Increasing criminalities
• Commercialization of traditions
Source: Analysis Primary Data, 2007
1) SO Strategies
The ecological resources such as lakes, rice fields, plantations and farms as well as forests; the social and cultural resources such as existing farmers, unique traditions, agricultural organizations, events, agricultural ceremonies, organizations linkages, human resources, agriculture regulations, information systems, heritages should be well developed, and promoted since these strength factors are able to generate potencies for other tourism business establishments, employment opportunities, enhance the family income and value of the village.
The uniqueness of each village should be well promoted and described to position strong images of the villages, indeed to combine agrotourism with the local indigenous and uniqueness.
• The main attractions of Bayung Gede Village are “Kuburan Ari-ari” (placenta grave) which used as the icon of the village and orange farm shall be used as the icon of agricultural products.
• The foremost attractions of Candi Kuning Village are organic farm and beautiful panorama of Beratan Lake and Eka Karya Bali Botanical Garden. They should be promoted as the icon of agrotourism of this village.
• The primary attractions of Blimbingsari Village are the unique tradition of Christian communities; Balinese-style church, and story of the village becoming a Christian village in Bali should be promoted as icon of pluralism and harmonic situation in Bali. Meanwhile the coconut and cacao farms should be used as the icon of agricultural products of this village.
• The core attractions offered at Pelaga Village are beautiful panorama of mountain, rice fields, and organic farms. They are used as the icon of the village.
The programs which should be formulated such as entire cooperation with tourism operators, packaging events in the village, and provide village information system.
2) WO Strategies
Currently, government support, investment in agricultural sector, development of village infrastructures, human resource skills, and public facilities are identified as the weakness factors of agrotourism development in Bali, therefore the local “village” government and all stakeholders should propose agrotourism development to the provincial government and central government to play more roles in order to apply the agrotourism concepts and reach the primary goals of rural economic empowerment.
The programs which should be formulated are provide accessibilities for the agricultural investors to invest in the village to rise up the numbers of local SMEs “Small and Medium Entrepreneurs”, providing regulations, developing infrastructures and public facilities, as well as giving training and certain kinds of live-skills to the local communities in order to master tourism skills particularly agribusiness skills.
3) ST Strategies
Local uniqueness and indigenous used as tourism attractions shall be well managed and controlled to avoid the matters such as degradation of natural resources, land using problems such land for non agricultural sector, pollution, host attitude changes, criminalities, and commercialization of traditions.
The programs which should be formulated are providing environment controller system, provide business related agribusiness, and promote organic farms system.
4) WT Strategies
The weaknesses such as lack of government support, investment in agricultural sector, development of village infrastructures, human skills, and public facilities shall me immediately improved to develop agrotourism well. Furthermore the local communities should be actively involved in policy and planning makings.
The programs which should be formulated are involving the local communities as controller in many levels of organizations, issuing policy, using bottom-up planning system, enlarge cooperates with investors to develop agrotourism.