Links to Journal Agrotourism
This chapter deals with conceptual framework, research design, instruments used in collecting data, sampling technique, justification of selected method, analysis techniques, and limitations of the research.
3.1 The Conceptual Framework
Descriptions of the Conceptual Framework
• Tourism sector has been developed by interactions and interconnections among linkage sectors. In the context of tourism destination as a product, it follows product lifecycle. It interacts between demand and supply dynamically. Innovations and creativities should be done to sustain the tourism development in Bali.
• The demand and supply should be identified and known by those who intend to develop tourism as well as agrotourism. The opportunity of agrotourism can be predicted by demand and supply. The demand is needed to identify the chances of agrotourism as tourism product from the consumer side and the supply is an important thing to identify of opportunities to develop agrotourism especially to host communities, providers, and government as policy maker.
• This study will assemble the opportunities and chances of agrotourism in Bali as an alternative form of tourism. Information and opinions of stakeholders (farmers, government, tourism industries, NGOs, Universities, and visitors), will be analysed and formulated using SWOT analysis. Finally, the finding of this study will be used as a recommendation and strategy to develop agrotourism in Bali.
3.2 Research Design
Cooper and Schinder (1998) define research design as a plan of selecting sources and types of information used to answer the research questions. It specifies the relationships among the studied variables and outlines each procedure from the hypothesis to the data analysis. It deals with issues as techniques for data collection, sampling technique as well as time and cost constrains.
3.3 Case Study Design
Veal (1997) characterizes a case study as a research that involves a study of a phenomenon being exemplified and researched which is aimed at understanding the phenomenon clearly by examining an exacting example. The case study of this research will be focused in Bali Province since it is presently used as the icon of tourism in Indonesia. According to Pujaastawa, et al (2005), Bali has villages which have been developed in rural tourism form. The villages are collected as case studies of agrotourism in Bali, they are:
a) Bayung Gede Village, Kintamani District in Bangli Regency is promoted as rural tourism especially for orange agrotourism and unique tradition.
b) Candi Kuning Village, Baturiti District in Tabanan Regency is promoted as an agrotourism especially for strawberry and vegetables farms collaborated with beautiful panorama.
c) Blimbingsari Village, Melaya District in Jembrana Regency is promoted as rural tourism especially for coconut and cacao farms.
d) Pelaga Village, Petang District in Badung Regency is promoted as Pelaga Agrotourism particularly for vegetables and organic farming for hotels’ supplies in Bali.
3.4 Qualitative Research Approach
This research uses qualitative approach which involves some library researches and observation. Qualitative method according to Veal (1997), refers to the methods and techniques which describe and emphasize more on qualitative rather that quantitative information. This research is designed using qualitative descriptive research methods.
1. The data used to answer the problem statement and research questions are collected through:
a) Direct observation, by observing agriculture areas in Bali particularly the areas which used as case studies such as; Bayung Gede, Candi Kuning, Blimbingsari, and Pelaga Villages.
b) Structured interview (questioner and open questions), by having direct interactions with the agrotourism stakeholders in Bali. They are government, tourism industries, local communities, tourists or visitors, universities, and Non Governmental Organizations.
c) The interviewees or respondents determined through purposive sampling technique.
The number of respondents and techniques used definitely described below.
1) The respondents from farmers or local communities determined through purposive sampling which comprise fifteen (15) local farmers or communities from each case study (Bayung Gede, Candi Kuning, Blimbingsari, and Pelaga Villages).
2) The respondents from universities as expertise determined through purposive sampling which comprise 5 lecturers from Agricultural Department of Udayana University, 1 lecturer from Tourism Studies of School of Graduate Studies of Udayana University, and 2 lecturers from Tourism College of Dhyana Pura.
3) The respondents from NGOs determined through purposive sampling which comprise respondents from Maha Boga Marga Foundation (4 respondents) which concerns on rural society development and Dian Buana Lestari Faundation (2 respondents) which concerns on ecotourism development.
4) The respondents from governments determined through purposive sampling which comprise local governments of Bayung Gede, Candi Kuning, Blimbingsari, and Pelaga Villages of 5, 5, 5, 3 respondents in order.
5) The respondents from tourism indusrties, which comprise one respondent from Dyana Pura Hotel and Resort.
2. Combinations of Qualitative and Quantitative Data
According to Trochim (2006), qualitative data is extremely varied in nature. It includes virtually any non numerical information captured during the research. This research uses two kinds of collecting data techniques, namely:
• Structured Interviews
Individual interviews are conducted to collect data and information about external and internal factors relate to agrotourism developments in Bali.
The questioners are designed on Likert-scale interval to collect the stakeholders’ opinions on agrotourism developments in Bali.
• Direct Observation
According to Trochim (2006), direct observation is a technique of collecting data which taken from research field where one lives in another context or culture for a period of time to photographs that illustrate some aspects of the phenomenon. The data can be recorded in many of the same ways as interviews (stenography, audio, and video) and through pictures, photos or drawings (e.g., those courtroom drawings of witnesses are a form of direct observation). In this case, the collected date relate to resources of agrotourism in Bali.
3. The analysis
This study uses SWOT survey and combined with qualitative and quantitative data which analysed and focused on the following key areas: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. The collected data are descriptively analysed using software Microsoft Excel 2003 and SPSS 12 to determine the means, scores, and ranks of the internal factors (strengths and weaknesses), and to determine the external factors (threats and opportunities) of agrotourism as an alternative form of tourism development in Bali. While the data from direct observation used as primary data to compare opinions and factual described into check list tables, chart, photos, and pictures.
3.5 Factors and Variables
The variables are quoted from literature reviews to answer the research questions, detailed as follow:
1. Variables relate to the current situations of tourism and agriculture in Bali are measured by ecological, social, and cultural resources both tourism and agriculture sectors (Pujaastawa et al, 2005).
2. Variables relate to the opportunities of developing agrotourism obtained from the farmers’ opinions comprise; generating income and jobs, multiplier effect for local farmers, stimulating developments, increasing economic activities, increasing value of village, and opportunities for other developments (Lobo et al, 1999).
3. Variables relate to the barriers of developing agrotourism from the farmers’ opinions comprise; investment in the villages, human resources relate to agrotourism, local governments support, infrastructures and facilities, ecological resources, and social and cultural resources (Lobo et al, 1999).
4. Variables relate to the tourism stakeholder’s opinions of agro tourism development in Bali from many perspectives such as government, tourism industries, NGOs, Universities, and local communities comprise: ecological resources for agrotourism comprise rice fields, plantations, forestry, mountains, lakes, rivers, and etcetera; and social and cultural resources for agrotourism comprise local cultures, traditions, religion, and etcetera (Pujaastawa et al, 2005). Meanwhile, information from visitors comprises; education trips, improvement on health and freshness, relaxation, adventure, natural food or organic food, unique experiences, and cheap tourism (Rilla, 1999).
5. Variables relate to the contributions of agrotourism toward economy improvement of local communities comprise; village accommodations, village restaurants, and souvenir shops (Spillane, 1994).
6. Variables relate to the contributions of agrotourism toward improvement of the social situation of local communities comprise; attractions or events, public facilities, accessibilities, organisation linkages, and host attitudes (Spillane, 1994).
7. Variables relate to the contributions of agrotourism for sustainable tourism development comprise: initiative of local societies to be controllers and conservers of agrotourism; involving local labour and improving quality of life of local society; national, regional and host regulations for agrotourism; guidance regarding operation, evaluation, analysis and critical tourism impacts; education and training programs (Jamieson and Noble, 2000).
The findings of this research are descriptively and qualitatively described per opportunity, threat, strength, and weakness. Moreover, to determine which strategy will be recommended, uses the options described below.
• SO Strategies: Use the strengths to take advantages of the opportunities
• WO Strategies: Overcome the weaknesses by taking advantages of the opportunities
• ST Strategies: Use the strengths to avoid threats
• WT Strategies: Minimize the weaknesses and avoid threats
Each instrument (questioners, photos, and documents) will be assigned identification numbers or coding. Before the interview conducted, each selected interviewee will be asked by phone especially government, NGOs, and universities to know their willingness as an interviewee and make appointment when and where the interview will be conducted.
5. Time Planning
In order to give guidelines, knowing the progress in conducting this research and to be able to finish by the end of August 2007, the time planning will be as follows:
1. November 2006, begin the research proposal
2. January- June 2007, develop the literature reviews
3. June-July 2007, develop, conduct interview and collect data
4. July- August 2007, data process and analyse the result of data processing and Interpretation and conclusion, complete the research report
5. August 2007, study and consoling perfectly of dissertation.
6. September 2007, Summit to exam committee.