CHAPTER 2: Literature Reviews



    Literature Reviews

    Links to Journal Agrotourism

    Summary, Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Project Research, Authors

    This paper will describe some reviews related with tourism, agriculture, and agrotourism itself.

    2.1 Tourism as an Interdisciplinary

    According to Jafari and Ritchie (1981), tourism is an interdisciplinary and integrates a variety of subjects, disciplines and focuses and can be seen from numerous points of views and approaches. The tourism as a central study can be studied from many focuses and created into a new form tourism development model as pictured at Chart 1. However tourism development model can be made in varying forms such as focus on agriculture as agrotourism, ecology as ecotourism, culture as cultural tourism, religion as religious tourism, etcetera.

    Figure 1 Resource: McIntosh and Goeldner (1990) modified.

    Furthermore, Wall and Mathieson (1989) quoted by Tjokrowinoto (2002), identifies three elements of tourism system; (1) a dynamic element which involves travel to selected destination; (2) a static element which involves the stay in the destination; and (3) a consequential element resulted from the two preceding elements which is concerned with effects on the economic, physical and social subsystems.
    Some external variables such as rising earnings, mobility increase, level of education increase, and desire to escape from pressure of day-to-day urban living generate effective demands on tourism which stimulate the rise of various forms of tourisms such as recreational tourism, cultural tourism, health tourism, conference tourism, historical tourism, eco tourism, etcetera.

    2.2 Sustainable Tourism Development
    Becken (2004) identifies several factors affected tourist destination sustainability in New Zealand such as sensitivity and capacity of environment, accessibility and supporting tourist infrastructure, existence of a cluster of attractions, and community attitude, support and participation in tourism development.
    A similar research conducted by Syamsu, et al (2001) which took a case study in agrotourism object which grow salak pondoh located in Sleman, Yogyakarta- Indonesia identified many factors related to sustainability of the destination such as scarcity, uniqueness, nature, improving host community, as well as equality between stakeholders. Furthermore, these factors turn into more important things to apply the tourism destination sustainability.

    According to WTO (1999), sustainability as a concept involves a number of perspectives comprise environmental, ecological, social, cultural, and economic issues. Furthermore, according to UNEP (2002) to apply the sustainable tourism development, the strategies should be based on a formal expression of principles for sustainable tourism. Moreover, the guidelines, techniques and principles are presented important for national governments, destinations and organizations which wish to be guided by the ethics of sustainable and responsible tourism. The guidelines and principles include: community participation, stakeholder involvement, local ownership, establishment of local business linkages, sustainability of the resource base, community goals, cooperation between local attractions, businesses and tourism operators, carrying capacity, monitoring and evaluating, accountability, establishment of education and training programmes, and positioning.

    2.3 Rural Tourism

    Rural tourism is a complex multi-faceted activities as Lane (1994) explains which quoted by Page and Getz (1997), it is not only farm-based tourism but also comprises special interest nature holiday and ecotourism, walking, climbing and riding holidays, adventure, sport and health tourism, hunting and angling, educational tourism, art and heritage tourism, and in some areas, ethnic tourism.
    In addition, Page and Getz (1997) explain that rural tourism should be based on rural areas, small scale enterprise, open space, contact with nature, traditional, long-term good of the area development, and representing the complex pattern of rural environment, economy, history and location.

    While, UNDP (2005) interprets that rural tourism is any form of tourism that showcases the rural life, art, culture and heritage in a rural location, thereby benefiting the local community economically and socially as well as enabling interaction between the tourists and the locals for a more educational tourism experience which can be termed as rural tourism with essentially any activity which takes place in the countryside.

    Nevertheless the future perspective of recreation and tourism in rural areas really depend on the successful integration among the traditional and the new forms of leisure and the traditional and new forms of other economic activities in these areas. The stakeholders involvements are highly required to assure the recreation and tourism in rural areas are sustainable and meet the future directions of tourism development.

    2.4 Agriculture and Rural Areas in Indonesia

    According to Indonesian Agriculture Department (2002), about 55% or 125 million Indonesian people occupies in agriculture and 45% in other sectors. Therefore the agriculture sector is still considered as a vital sector which involves a great number of workers and the majority of Indonesian citizens are living in rural areas, and most of their incomes are generated from agricultural activities.
    At present, Indonesia is utilizing about 64 million ha land for agriculture and home gardens, i.e. 8.3 million ha for lowland rice, 30 million ha for annual upland farming and grassland, and 25.5 million ha for perennial crops. About 8.5 ha land is covered by grassland. Area for plantation, especially for oil palm expands rapidly in response to the increasing demand of international and domestic markets (Mulyani et al., 2003).
    Since 1970s, the agricultural policies in Indonesia have been merely concerned on production-based policies which specifically designed to meet food self-sufficiency. This goal was reached in 1984, when the first time, domestic rice production exceeded domestic rice consumption (Barbier, 1989). The agriculture sector in Indonesia consists of food crops as mentioned as rice, estate crops, livestock, fishing, and forestry. Except for rice, agricultural commodities have been addressed for export interests and developed to be the second sector besides oil and liquefied natural gas as earning contributors of Indonesian economy.

    2.5 Potency of Agrotourism in Indonesia

    Dalem (1999) describes that Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago, consisting of more than 17 000 islands. Indonesia is located around the Equator between Asia and the Australian continent, and between the Pacific and Indian oceans. Biogeographically, the western part of Indonesia (Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java and Bali) has Asian characteristics, while the eastern part, Maluku and Irian Jaya (Papua), has Australian characteristics. Unlike Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara have separate characteristics. In addition, the diversities of ecosystems reflect the diversities of flora and fauna in the country.

    Furthermore, Indonesia is the second-most biodiversity country after Brazil mentioned by Primack et al. (1998) and the diversity of flora, fauna and their ecosystems, as well as the diversity of culture, are very potential to be developed as ecotourism and agrotourism destinations.

    Schurink (2000) states that the development of agricultural tourism in Indonesia very potential because agriculture sector and government have positive perception toward tourist and tourism furthermore Indonesia has other resources included the agricultural tourism such as rivers, mountains, and natural environment. In relation to agricultural tourism implementation in Indonesia, stakeholders should be surely harmonised on perceptions and policies. Furthermore Schurink initiates that the government as well as universities play essential roles in the development of rural areas and agrotourism. NGOs hardly ever have influence on government policies for tourism. His finding suggests that the development of agrotourism in Indonesia shall be organized according to the alternative tourism development theories and the sectors involved in the development should be very watchful in order to sustain the objects and not to lose their authenticities.

    2.6 Agrotourism

    This chapter, explains specific agrotourism terms which refer to definitions, philosophy, and related agrotourism case studies.
    2.6.1 Definition of Agrotourism

    Agrotourism is collaborations between tourism and agriculture because the visitor go to travelling as tourist to enjoy, relaxation, spend time and money for enjoyable and happiness in addition to visiting agricultural area, doing activities related agricultural such as harvest, planting, fishing, etc (
    Reynolds (2005) mentions that agrotourism is businesses conducted by farmers whose working agricultural operations for the enjoyment and education of visitors. In extensions meaning, agrotourism presents the potential generating farm revenues and increasing profitability. Additionally, visitors of agrotourism contact directly with farmers and support the increase of agriculture products indirectly.
    Furthermore, according to WTO (2002), that agrotourism is part of rural tourism and relates to tourism on farms. It gives farmers options to expand their activities and receive more income. Agrotourism is a small part of rural tourism and agricultural practice worldwide, excluding in some European countries such as Austria, France, Italy and Switzerland, the number of farms that offer some form of tourism is remarkably large. In some areas and countries, agrotourism forms a large part of rural tourism as a whole.

    This study refers the definition of agrotourism from WTO as special interest tourism which is developed as an alternative tourism development form in Bali.

    2.6.2 History and Trends of Agrotourism

    Formerly agrotourism was recognized as a part of ecotourism because both have similar principles to conduct nature attractions (Rilla 1999). In this case, the history of ecotourism can also be seen as history of agrotourism. Agrotourism started from rural tourism as well. In addition, both have been identified as the fastest tourism development model in the world, and get very serious responses. They have been widely developed in developing countries as a potential development models as natural resources and support of local society economically (OTA, 1992).

    At the moment, agrotourism has successfully developed in many countries, for instance Switzerland, New Zeeland, France, Netherlands, Australia, and Austria (Rilla 1999). In Indonesia, there are eight provinces trying to develop agrotourism such as North Sumatra with rubber and palm plantations, Riau with cacao plantations, West Java by botanical gardens, Central Java and Daerah Istimewa Yogjakarta by salak pondoh agrotourism in Sleman, East Java by sugar plantations, Nusa Tenggara Barat by Rinjani ecotourism, Middle of Kalimantan and West of Kalimantan by palm plantations. Commonly they are still simply managed with limited facilities and are not developed on community-based model, and have not been well promoted (Indonesian Agriculture Department, 2005).

    In addition, agrotourism attraction previously, interpreted as panorama attractions and plantations area, but the new notion of agrotourism has been interpreted as a linkage system between tourism and agriculture sectors as well as a model of region development (Indonesia Agriculture Department, 2005).

    2.6.3 Philosophy of Agrotourism

    The philosophy of agrotourism is inspired to improve the farmers’ earnings and the quality of rural society lives which then expectedly represents opportunity to educate the societies on agriculture and ecosystems.
    Related and similar opinions described by Lobo, et al (1999), whereas the development of agrotourisms will offer opportunities for local farmers to increase their earnings and improve their lives as well as sustain their operations. The opinions can be detailed as such: (1) it educates people or society about agriculture and contribute to local economic, (2) it decrease the flood of urbanization as people are able to get jobs and earnings from agrotourism, (3) it promotes local products, and regional in marketing effort and create value added and direct-marketing and stimulate economic activity as well as give benefit to society where agrotourism developed.

    Rilla (1999) describes more clearly the reasons of developing agrotourism as such; (1) it educates for the purpose of keeping the relationship among local societies, interest sectors, and visitors. (2) it improves the health and freshness of visitors, (3) relaxation, (4) adventure, (5) natural food or food organic, (6) unique experiences, (7) cheap tourism.

    2.6.4 Contributions of Agrotourism to Tourism

    At the moment, the information of agrotourism contributions in many destinations is still limited since agrotourism is a newly tourism development model. Though, Afandhi (2005), asserts that the main purpose of agrotourism development is an innovated tourism attractions. Besides, it also has a number of purposes such as media promotion of agriculture products, increasing foreign exchange and farmers’ earnings.
    In tourism product concept, agrotourism as a tourism attraction may not be separately measured as the total of tourism product is actually the interaction and interconnection among transportation sectors, accommodations, and food and beverage sectors, etc.

    2.6.5 Factors Relate to Agrotourism Development

    The Indonesian Agriculture Department (2005), identifies there are some aspects relating to agrotourism development which should be well concerned such as human resources, natural resources, promotion, infrastructure, and also organisations linkages.

    Spillane (1994), mentions whereas areas developed area as agrotourism should be able to provide five elements such as attraction, facilities, infrastructure, transportation, and hospitality. They relate and work systematically and holistically in an agrotourism system.

    A similar assumption, Postma (2006) states there are three stakeholders which should be harmonized to create a successful agrotourism destination, such as; tourists as consumers, providers as business owners, and host communities.

    2.6.6 Impacts of Agrotourism

    Almost all models of tourism developments have dilemmas both positive and negative impacts. Developments of agrotourism in many destinations in Indonesia have been positively seen as opportunities for the local communities to undergo diversification and investment, as well as increasing awareness and responsiveness on environmental conservation (Indonesian Agriculture Department, 2005).

    Rural tourism or agrotourism generates a significant contribution to the rural development process in rural areas and does indeed do so in many cases (Hall et al. 2003). The contributions could be in the forms of income increase and job opportunities, exchange between rural and urban areas, multiplier effects particularly for small-scale direct investments, strengthening local or regional structures by creating networks and the like, stimulating physical infrastructure developments, increasing the diversity of economic activities, raising awareness of the value of an area, such as its landscape, nature and culture, and the economic potencies, as well as improving the infrastructure which enable to provide opportunities for other economic developments.

    The negative impacts of agrotourism development will occur when the development ignores the development principles and ethics. The potential negative impacts which may occur such as degradation of environment and local culture qualities, and economics gaps among the regions (Sutjipta, 2001).

    2.6.7 Prospect and Trend of Agrotourism in the World.

    Many tourism policy makers have notified that tourism is a prospective business. WTO (2004) forecasts that international tourist arrivals around the world will increase year to year and in the year 2010 will reach one billion and 2020 will increase and achieve 1,6 billion people.

    Nugroho (1997) mentions that the tourist motivations to travel visiting particular destinations have changed a lot since now the tourists are more preferably interested in unique or specific things, novelty, more challenging and enthused activities, and the most important is to experience the quality of tourism products and services.
    Moreover, rural tourism is now a trend in Europe, and it grows gradually. Worldwide, the increase of rural tourism is three times more than tourism in general as the World Tourism Organization (WTO) estimates an annual growth of approximately 6% as against 2% for tourism in general. From this tendency, it can be interpreted that the market for rural tourism has increased sharply. Additionally according to the experts, the maturation of people leads to an increasing demand for nature and culture-related activities. Moreover, the growth of demand on tourism has now become an increasingly important alternative source of incomes for farmers and other rural inhabitants (WTO 2000, 2002, European Commission, 2001, 2003).

    According to Veer and Tuunter (2005), the tourism product is often highly complex since it often involves chains of activities and facilities, and aesthetics. The tourism product usually exceeds the business level. Each part of the chain constitutes an aspect of the total product. The strength of the connections between the different aspects may vary, however. The various components of the rural tourism products are shown in the following figure.

    Figure 2 source: (Richards, 1996), modified by Veer and Tuunter (2005)

    Figure 2 illustrates, that the rural tourism in its run involves other sectors such as accommodation, activities, attractions, events, transports and amenities, and other services. These sectors are very potential for the local people particularly farmers to earn extra money. They are able to offer more guided tours in their farm, nature areas, mountains, and other interesting objects and attractions available in their regions.

    In many places, agrotourism grows rapidly since tourists presently intend to experience activities which completely different from their daily lives and places which have been visited previously. Normally people travel to certain destinations to escape from the stress of traffic jams, cellular phones, office cubicles and carpooling. More particular, parents who love their children much really want their children to know and understand where food, drink or milk actually comes from. Nowadays, the idea of the family to take a pleasant drive to the country sides to spend the day together with their family is extremely appealing for the purposes of visiting farms, ranches or wineries to buy products, enjoying entertainment, participating in farming activities, and having meals or spending the night (

    2.6.8 Prospects of Agrotourism in Indonesia and Bali

    Agriculture sector plays an important role and represents dominant and leading sector of economics of Indonesia. A number of improvements on agriculture have been intensively and continuously improved by interest parties such as government especially Department of Agriculture to revise polices relate to agriculture and intensify speech on agriculture to farmers, academician to discover new method of land cultivation and superior seed to harvest faster, and farmers to improve the quality of agriculture productions. These improvements have stimulated and created new opportunities to develop agrotourism. Besides, Indonesia also has beautiful panorama, nature resources, rural regions, and population which dominantly farmers (Indonesia Agricultural Department, 2005).

    According to Sudibya (2002), a number of regencies in Bali are very potential to be developed agrotourism destinations, for instance;

    a) Bangli Regency is potential to be developed as orange and lemon agrotourism which can be combined with the two nearest tourism objects such as Batur Mount and Batur Lake.
    b) Buleleng Regency, particularly Pancasari Village is potential to be developed as strawberry, vegetables, and flowers agrotourism.
    c) Tabanan Regency can be intensified to develop a park named Eka Karya Botanical Garden and horticultural which can be combined with rice field view in Baturiti, Bedugul.
    d) Karangasem Regency, exactly in Sibetan Village is potential to develop salak (light brown snake skin fruit) agrotourism combined with panorama and surrounding natural environment.

    2.6.9 Agrotourism and Philosophy of Hindu

    The philosophy of Hindu called Tri Hita Karana, which mainly consists of three principles of harmonic relationship among human and being, humans and the environment, and humans and God has been used as a fundamental concept in all developments in Bali. Agrotourism is identified and considered to relate and be relevant with this philosophy, represent one of the traditional values and cultures to pay attention on environment sustainability (Pujaastawa, 2006). Additionally, Pujaastawa (2006) lists three fundamentals of Tri Hita Karana concept namely; parahyangan (spiritual environment), pawongan (social environment), and palemahan (nature environment).

    As agrotourism has been identified as a tourism development model which is based on the principles of sustainable development, therefore agrotourism is prospective to be developed in Bali Island for the purpose of improving motivations of working by spirit “parahyangan”, increasing local earnings “pawongan”, and conserving the nature “palemahan”.

    2.6.10 Quality and Sustainability of Agrotourism

    The new tourism paradigm, the modern tourists prefer visiting environmental-based tourism destinations, self-supporting and experienced which aimed at looking for flexible vacations, special enthusiasm in several of natural attraction and experiences. According to Eadington and Smith (1995), agrotourism is the best alternative to be applied as it has all of qualifications mentioned above.
    Jamieson and Noble (2000) elaborate whereas there are five important principles which shall be applied to achieve sustainable tourism and agrotourism in particular, such as:

    1. Tourism has to initiate and involve the local societies to be controller and conserver of tourism;
    2. Tourism has to provide labour opportunity and improve the quality of local societies’ lives;
    3. Tourism has to be regulated by national and regional governments as well as host communities which formulated into an international agreement standard;
    4. Tourism has to provide guidance concerning operation, evaluation, analysis and critical of tourism impacts;
    5. Tourism has to educate the local societies through education and training programs to increase their awareness on tourism development which finally assist to preserve the cultural heritages and existing natural resources.

    2.7 The Roles of Tourism Stakeholders

    The stakeholders of tourism development consist of six groups namely government, tourism industries, local communities, tourists or visitors, universities, and NGOs. They play roles differently and shall work simultaneously in applying the principles of sustainable tourism development. The descriptions of their roles are elaborated as below.

    • Government comprises central government represented and specifically ruled by Culture and Tourism Department, tourism authority, regional governments. The roles of government as stakeholders are to provide policies and site plan and other planning documents, and functioned as regulator.

    • Tourism industries comprise hoteliers, restaurant owners, travel agents, and other related tourism entrepreneurs. Tourism industries play role in providing investments on main and supporting tourism facilities, small-scale infrastructures, and other tourists’ demands.

    • Local communities comprise Desa Adat (customary village legal body), farmers who own the land, and other societies residing in the area where tourism developed.

    • Tourists or visitors comprise domestic and foreign tourists who intend to experience a high quality of tourism activities and attractions.

    • Universities comprise Agriculture Department, Tourism Department, and Tourism Higher Schools which provide qualified human resources, research results on agriculture and tourism by issuing scientific recommendations to form new and alternative tourism development models.

    • NGOs comprise Non Government Organizations which specifically concern on agriculture, rural area, and tourism function as independent controllers.

    Postma (2006) states more specifically that tourism destinations should convey benefits and other forms of values to all tourism stakeholders. Government shall receive gains in the form of state and regional revenues, local residents enable to improve the quality of their lives, tourists may experience a qualified tourism attraction as expected, tourism industries generate profits to expand their industries and grant prosperities to their employees, and NGOs are expected to obtain donations from other stakeholders to survive their organizations in order to be able to play their roles smoothly.


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